Our knowledge of the environment of the nucleus of our galaxy has been greatly enhanced, by more extensive and sensitive observations at radio and infrared wavelengths, the advent of high resolution x-ray imaging and spectroscopy, and considerable theoretical activity to understand the nucleus and its components, and their activity.
The Galactic Center Workshop 2002 was organized to review recent research on the galactic center, including the latest state-of-the-art observations and important theoretical developments. The workshop covered phenomena on scales ranging from the central several hundred parsecs to the central parsec and within. Each topic was approached from both multi-wavelength observational and theoretical perspectives.
Chapter 1: Large Scale Structures: Surveys and Interactions.High-resolution Hi Absorption Observations towards the Central 200 pc of the Galaxy (Cornelia C. Lang, Claudia Cyganowski, W. M. Goss, Jun-Hui Zhao).High Resolution, High Sensitivity Imaging of the Galactic Center at 330 MHz (Michael E. Nord, Crystal L. Brogan, Scott D. Hyman, T. Joseph W. Lazio, Namir E. Kassim, T.N. LaRosa, K. Anantharamaiah, Neboja Duric).Spatially Resolved Very Large Array 74 MHz Observations Toward the Galactic Center (C. L. Brogan, M. Nord, N. Kassim, J. Lazio, K. Anantharamaiah).Chandra view of the central 300 pc of our Galaxy (Q. Daniel Wang).Two Thousand X-ray Stars in the Central 20 pc of the Galaxy (M. P. Muno, F. K. Baganoff, M. W. Bautz, W. N. Brandt, P. S. Broos, E. D. Feigelson, G. P. Garmire, M. R. Morris, G. R. Ricker, L. K. Townsley).Magnetic field in the Galactic Centre: Rotation Measure observations of extragalactic sources (Subhashis Roy, A. Pramesh Rao, Ravi Subrahmanyan).Study of the Nuclear Bulge region of the Galaxy (K. S. Baliy an, S. Ganesh, U. C. Joshi, I. S. Glass, T. Nagata).A morphological Study of the Galactic Inner Bulge (Kiran S. Baliyan, Shashikiran Ganesh, Umesh C. Joshi, Ian S. Glass, Mark R. Morris, Alain Omont, Mathias Schultheis, Guy Simon).Warm molecular gas, dust and ionized gas in the 500 central pc of the Galaxy (N. J. Rodriguez-Fernandez, J. Martin-Pintado, A. Fuente, T. L. Wilson).Prospects for LOFAR Observations of the Galactic Center (N. E. Kassim, T. J. W. Lazio, M. Nord, S. D. Hyman, C. L. Brogan, T. N. LaRosa, N. Duric).43 GHz SiO masers in late-type stars with 86 GHz SiO masers and astrometry with VERA in the Galactic center (Lorant O. Sjouwerman, Maria Messineo, Harm J. Habing).A Search for Radio Transients at 0.33 GHz in the GC (Scott D. Hyman, T. Joseph W. Lazio, Namir E. Kassim, Michael E. Nord, Jennifer L. Neureuther).Chapter 2: Molecular Clouds and Magnetic Fields.A Molecular Face-on View of the Galactic Center Region (Tsuyoshi Sawada, Tetsuo Hasegawa, Toshihiro Handa, R. J. Cohen).The Inner 200pc: Hot Dense Gas (Christopher L. Martin, Wilfred M. Walsh, Kecheng Xiao, Adair P. Lane, Christopher K. Walker, Antony A. Stark).Gravitational Stability of Molecular Clouds in the Galactic Center (Tomoharu Oka, Tetsuo Hasegawa).Spectroscopy of Hydrocarbon Grains toward the Galactic Center and Quintuplet Cluster (J. E. Chiar, A. J. Adamson, D. C. B. Whittet, Y .J. Pendleton).X-rays from the HII Regions and Molecular Clouds near the Galactic Center (Katsuji Koyama, Hiroshi Murakami, Shinichiro Takagi).Reflected X-ray Emissions on Giant Molecular Clouds - Evidence of the Past Activities of Sgr A (Hiroshi Murakami, Atsushi Senda, Yoshitomo Maeda, Katsuji Koyama).Observation of Toroidal Magnetic Fields on 100 pc Scales in the Galactic Center (G. Novak, D. T. Chuss, J. L. Dotson, G. S. Griffin, R. F. Loewenstein, M. G. Newcomb, D. Pernic, J. B. Peterson, T. Renbarger).Extended photoionization and photodissociation in Sgr B2 (J. R. Goicoechea, N. J. Rodriguez-Fernandez, J. Cernicharo).Propagation of charged particles from the Galactic Center (W. Bednarek, M. Giller, M. Zielinska).Discovery of New SNR Candidates in the Galactic Center Region with ASCA and Chandra (Atsushi Senda, Hiroshi Murakami, Katsuji Koyama X Contents).Molecular LineObservations of the Tornado Nebula and its Eye (J. Lazendic, M. Burton, F. Yusef-Zadeh, M. Wardle, A. Green, J. Whiteoak).The Search for Water and Other Molecules in the Galactic Centre with the Odin Satellite (Aa. Sandqvist, P. Bergman, A. Hjalmarson, E. Falgarone, T. Liljestrom, M. Lindqvist, A. Winnberg, the Odin Team).Chapter 3: Sagittarius A and its Environs.Deep X-Ray Imaging of the Central 20 Parsecs of the Galaxy with Chandra (Mark Morris, Fred Baganoff, Michael Muno, Christian Howard, Yoshitomo Maeda, Eric Feigelson, Marshall Bautz, Niel Brandt, George Chartas, Gordon Garmire, Lisa Townsley).Mapping Magnetic Fields in the Cold Dust at the Galactic Center (David T. Chuss, Giles Novak, Jacqueline A. Davidson, Jessie L. Dotson, C. Darren Dowell, Roger H. Hildebrand, John E. Vaillancourt).The Galactic Center Nonthermal Filaments: Recent Observations and Theory (T. N. LaRosa, Michael E. Nord, T. Joseph W. Lazio, Steven N. Shore, Namir E. Kassim).Interaction between the Northeastern Boundary of Sgr A East and Giant Molecular Clouds: Excitation Mechanisms of the H2 Emission (Sungho Lee, Soojong Pak, Christopher J. Davis, Robeson M. Herrnstein, T. R. Geballe, Paul T. P. Ho, J. Craig Wheeler).Sgr A East and its surroundings - a view with XMM-Newton (Masaaki Sakano, Robert S. Warwick, Anne Decourchelle).Chandra ACIS Imaging Spectroscopy of Sgr A East (Y. Maeda, K. Itoh, F. K. Baganoff, M. W. Bautz, W. N. Brandt, D. N. Burrows, J. P. Doty, E. D. Feigelson, G. P. Garmire, M. Morris, M. P. Muno, S. Park, S. H. Pravdo, G. R. Ricker, L. K. Townsley).A Census of Dust Absorption at the Galactic Centre (Andy Adamson, Rachel Mason, Emily Macdonald, Gillian Wright, Jean Chiar, Yvonne Pendleton, Tom Kerr, Janet Bowey, Doug Whittet, Mark Rawlings).Thermal SiO observations of a shell attached to the nonthermal filaments in Sgr A (Toshihiro Handa, Masaaki Sakano, Masato Tsuboi).Absorption and Emission in the Four Ground-State OH Lines Observed at 18 cm with the VLA Towards the Galactic Centre (R. Karlsson, Aa. Sandqvist, L. O. Sjouwerman, J. B. Whiteoak).Constraints on distances to Galactic Centre non-thermal filaments from HI absorption (Subhashis Roy).Discovery of a non-thermal X-ray filament in the Galactic Centre (Masaaki Sakano, Robert S. Warwick, Anne Decourchelle).High-negative velocities in the inner 25 pc of the Galactic center (Lorant O. Sjouwerman).Chapter 4: Stars and Star Formation.Really Cool Stars and the Star Formation History at the Galactic Center (Robert D. Blum, Solange V. Ramirez, Kristen Sellgren, Knut Olsen).Massive Stars and The Creation of our Galactic Center (Donald F. Figer).The Galactic Center Source IRS 13E: a Star Cluster (Jean-Pierre Maillard, Thibaut Paumard, Susan Stolovy, Francois Rigaut).X-ray Emission from Stellar Clusters Near the Galactic Center (Casey Law, Farhad Yusef-Zadeh).Simulated X-ray emission from the Arches cluster (Pablo F. Velazquez, Alejandro C. Raga, Jorge Canto, Elena Masciadri, Luis F. Rodriguez).SiO Maser Sources within 30 pc of the Galactic Center (Shuji Deguchi, Hiroshi Imai).86 GHz SiO masing late-type stars in the Inner Galaxy (M. Messineo, H. J..Habing, L. O. Sjouwerman, K. M. Menten, A. Omont).CNO Abundances in the Quintuplet Cluster M Supergiant 5-7 (S. V. Ramirez, K. Sellgren, R. Blum, D. M. Terndrup).New results on the Galactic Center Helium stars (Thibaut Paumard, Jean-Pierre Maillard, Susan Stolovy).Ten Thousand Stars Toward the Galactic Center (Francois Rigaut, Robert Blum, Tim Davidge, Angela Cotera).Stellar Orbits at the Center of the Milky Way (N. Mouawad, A. Eckart, S. Pfalzner, J. Moultaka, C. Straubmeier, R. Spurzem, R. Schodel, T. Ott).Dynamical Friciton near the Galactic Center (Sungsoo S. Kim, Donald F. Figer, Mark Morris).Near-infrared adaptive optics observations of the Galactic Center with NAOS/CONICA (ESO) and GriF (CFHT) (Y. Clenet, D. Rouan, F. Lacombe, E. Gendron, D. Gratadour).Radio Pulsars in the Galactic Center (T. Joseph W. Lazio, James M. Cordes, Cornelia C. Lang, Eric V. Gotthelf, Q. Daniel Wang).Review of low-mass X-ray binaries near the Galactic center (A. Lutovinov, S. Grebenev, S. Molkov, R. Sunyaev).Neutrons, neutrinos, and gamma-rays from the Galactic Center (W. Bednarek).Chapter 5: Sgr A I: New Observational Results.Linear and Circular Polarization from (G. C. Bower).Intrinsic Radio Variability of Sgr A (Jun-Hui Zhao).Flares of Sagittarius A at Short Millimeter Wavelengths (Atsushi Miyazaki, Takahiro Tsutsumi, Masato Tsuboi).Limits on the Short Term Variability of Sagittarius A in the Near-Infrared (S. D. Hornstein, A.M. Ghez, A. Tanner, M. Morris, E. E. Becklin).A New X-Ray Flare from the Galactic Nucleus Detected with XMM-Newton (A. Goldwurm, E. Brion, P. Goldoni, P. Ferrando, F. Daigne, A. Decourchelle, R. S. Warwick, P. Predehl).Searching for Structural Variability in Sgr A (Zhi-Qiang Shen, M. C. Liang, K. Y. Lo, M. Miyoshi).Observations of the Galactic Centre at 610 MHz with the GMRT (Subhashis Roy, A. Pramesh Rao).Closure Amplitude Analysis of 15, 22 and 43GHz VLBA Observations of Sagittarius A: Size is Consistent with the Scattering Law (G. C. Bower).VLBA observation of a radio intraday flare of Sgr A (Makoto Miyoshi, Hiroshi Imai, Junichi Nakashima, Shuji Deguchi, Zhi-Qiang Shen).A Chandra View of Diffuse X-Ray Emission in the Central 20 Parsecs of the Galaxy (Sangwook Park, Frederick K. Baganoff, Mark W. Bautz, Gordon P. Garmire, Yoshitomo Maeda, Mark Morris, Michael P. Muno).Investigating the submillimetre variability of Sagittarius A with SCUBA (Douglas Pierce-Price, Tim Jenness, John Richer, Jane Greaves).Near-Infrared Flux Limits for Sgr A Based on NICMOS Data (Susan Stolovy, Fulvio Melia, Donald McCarthy, Farhad Yusef-Zadeh).The wavelength dependence of Sgr A size and the unified model of compact radio sources (Fedor Prigara).Search for Circular Polarization toward Sagittarius A at 100 GHz (M. Tsuboi, H. Miyahara, R. Nomura, T. Kasuga, A. Miyazaki).Chapter 6: Sgr A II: Theoretical Models.Radiatively Inefficient Accretion Flow Models of Sgr A (Eliot Quataert).Jet Models for Flaring in Sgr A (Sera Markoff, Heino Falcke).A Jet-ADAF Model for Sgr A (F. Yuan, S. Markoff, H. Falcke).A model for polarised radio emission from Sgr A (T. Beckert).On the Chandra Detection of Diffuse X-Ray Emission from Sgr A (M. E. Pessah, F. Melia).A Relativistic Disk in Sagittarius A (Siming Liu, Fulvio Melia).The frozen (inactive) disk in Sgr A: freezing the accretion of the hot gas too? (Sergei Nayakshin).Gamma-ray emission from an ADAF around a Kerr black hole (Kazutaka Oka, Tadahiro Manmoto).Chapter 7: The Central Parsec.The Discovery of Sgr A (W. M. Goss, Robert L. Brown, K. Y. Lo).The Position, Motion, and Mass of Sgr A (Mark J. Reid, Karl M. Menten, Reinhard Genzel, Thomas Ott, Rainer Schodel, Andreas Brunthaler).Tidal processes very near the black hole in the Galactic Center (Tal Alexander).New MIR Excess Sources north of the IRS 13 Complex (A. Eckart, J. Moultaka, T. Viehmann, C. Straubmeier, N. Mouawad, R. Genzel, T. Ott, R. Schodel).Full Three Dimensional Orbits For Multiple Stars on Close Approaches to the Central Supermassive Black Hole (A. M. Ghez, E. Becklin, G. Duchene, S. Hornstein, M. Morris, S. Salim, A. Tanner).The Galactic Center stellar cluster: The central arcsecond (R. Schodel, R. Genzel, T. Ott, A. Eckart).Stellar Dynamics in the Galactic Center: 1000 Stars in 100 Nights (Thomas Ott, Reinhard Genzel, Andreas Eckart, Rainer Schodel).A Bow Shock of Heated Dust Surrounding IRS 8 (F. Rigaut, T. R. Geballe, J.-R. Roy, B. T. Draine).Monitoring Sagittarius A in the MIR with the VLT (A. Eckart, J. Moultaka, T. Viehmann, C. Straubmeier, N. Mouawad, R. Genzel, T. Ott, R. Schodel, F. K. Baganoff, M. R. Morris).The magnetic field in the central parsec (A. C. H. Glasse, D. K. Aitken, P. F. Roche).Mid-Infrared Imaging and Spectroscopic Observations of the Galactic Center with Subaru/COMICS (Y. Okada, T. Onaka, T. Miyata, H. Kataza, Y. K. Okamoto, S. Sako, M. Honda, T. Yamashita, T. Fujiyoshi).Physical Conditions in the Central Parsec Modeled from Mid-Infrared Imaging Photometry (Dan Gezari, Eli Dwek, Frank Varosi).LINC/NIRVANA - The LBT Near-Infrared Interferometric Camera (C. Straubmeier, A. Eckart, T. Bertram, T. Herbst).Chapter 8: Morphology and Dynamics of the Central 10 Parsecs.Hot Molecular Gas in the Central 10 Parsecs of the Galaxy (R. M. Herrnstein, P. T. P. Ho).The ISM and Stellar Distributions Near Sgr A (Nick Scoville, Susan R. Stolovy, Micol Christopher).Resolving The Northern Arm Sources at the Galactic Center (Angelle M. Tanner, A. M. Ghez, M. Morris, E. E. Becklin).Structural analysis of the Minispiral from high-resolution Bra data (Thibaut Paumard, Jean-Pierre Maillard, Mark Morris).Gas physics and dynamics in the central 50 pc of the Galaxy (B. Vollmer, W. J. Duschl, R. Zylka).The First Measurement of Radial Acceleration of Ionized Gas Near Sagittarius A (Doug Roberts, Farhad Yusef-Zadeh).Simple hydrodynamical Simulations of the Circumnuclear Disk (Robert F. Coker, Michol H. Christopher, Susan R. Stolovy, Nick Z. Scoville).