Table of Contents:
The Resource Economy of Plant Reproduction P. Staffan Karlsson and Marcos Mendez I. Introduction II. Historical Prelude III. The Principle of Allocation IV. Reproductive Effort A. Definitions V. Problems in Determining Reproductive Allocation A. The Currency B. Definition of Reproductive versus Non-reproductive Plant Parts C. When Should Reproductive Allocation be Measured? VI. Dynamic Resource Allocation VII. Empirical Patterns in Reproductive Allocation A. RA and Life History B. RA in relation to Succession, Competition and Disturbance C. RA in Relation to Environmental Stress D. Genetic Variation in RA E. What Does the Evidence Say? VIII. Costs of Reproduction A. Methodological Issues B. Quantitative Links Between Reproductive Allocation and Costs IX. Conclusions References 2. Meristem Allocation as a Means of Assessing Reproductive Allocation Kari Lehtila and Annika Sund?s Larsson I. Abstract II. Introduction III. Developmental and Physiological Background of Meristem Allocation IV. Meristem Structure and Generation of Plant Architecture V. Axillary Bud Formation and Subsequent Development of the Bud VI. Genetics and Physiology of the Floral Transition VII. Meristem Types VIII. Meristem Models IX. The Assumptions of the Models X. The Impact of Meristem Allocation on Reproductive Allocation XI. Plasticity of Meristem Allocation XII. Major Genes of Meristem Allocation XIII. Resource Levels and Meristem Limitation XIV. The Function of Dormant Buds XV. Meristem Allocation as a Surrogate in Estimation of Resource Allocation XVI. Conclusions References 3. It Never Rains but then it Pours: The Diverse Effects of Water on Flower Integrity and Function Candace Galen I. Abstract II. Introduction III. The Functional Ecology of Water in the Life of a Flower A. Water Use by Flowers B. The Water Cost of Flowers C. Water as a regulator of Flower Microclimate D. Water as a conduit for Environmental Sources of Flower Damage IV. Water Relations and the Evolution of Floral Traits A. Floral Traits as Resource Sinks: The Resource Cost Hypothesis B. Floral Traits and Water in the Microclimate: Parental Environmental Effects C. Plastic Responses of Floral Traits to Water Availability: Impact on Plant/Pollinator Interactions V. Conclusions References 4. The Allometry of Reproductive Allocation Gregory Cheplick I. Introduction II. Definition and Analysis of RA in Relation to Allometry III. Allometry Theory and RA IV. Relation of RA to Relative Fitness V. Allometry of Modules VI. Allometry of RA and Plant Life History VII. Determinants of Allometry VIII. Conclusions References 5. Sex-Specific Physiology and Its Implications for the Cost of Reproduction Andrea L. Case and Tia-Lynn Ashman I. Introduction II. Sexual Polymorphisms III. Costs of Reproduction A. Male Costs B. Female Costs C. Common Flower Costs D. Demographic Costs IV. Avenues for Mitigating the Cost of Reproduction A. Photosynthetic Reproductive Organs B. Increased Vegetative Photosynthesis C. Increased Resource Uptake and Water Use Effeciency D. Resorption V. Predictions for Sex-Specific Physiology Based on Differential Reproductive Costs A. Predictions for Females and Males B. Predictions for Hermaphrodites in Monomorphic Sexual Systems: Cosexuality. Monoecy and Diphasy C. Predictions for Hermaphrodites in Dimorphic Sexual Systems: Gynodioecy and Subdioecy VI. Potential Causes of Sex-Specific Physiology A. Physiological Differences Reflect Plastic Responses to Contrasting Reproductive Allocation between Sexes B. Selection Modifies Physiological Traits after the Separation of the Sexes to Meet Differential Reproductive Costs C. Physiology Changes as a Correlated Response to Selection on Other Traits (e.g. via Pleiotropy or Linkage) VII. Available Data on Sex-Specific Physiology VIII. Recommendations for Future Study References 6. Time of Flowering, Costs of Reproduction and Reproductive Output in Annuals Tadaki Hirose, Toshihiko Kinugasa, and Yukinori Shitaka I. Introduction II. Modelling of reproductive output III. Timing of reproduction A. Effect of nutrient availability B. Effect of germination dates C. Effect of change in flowering time IV. Costs of reproduction A. Reproductive effort and the relative somatic cost B. Nitrogen use efficiency V. Reproductive nitrogen VI. Conclusion References 7. The Shape of the Trade-off Function between Reproduction and Growth Edward G. Reekie and German Avila-Sakar I. Introduction II. Methods of Describing the Trade-off Function III. The Shape of the Trade-off Function in Plantago IV. Impact of Reproduction on Resource Uptake V. Differences in the Resource Requirements of Vegetative versus Reproductive Tissue VI. Effect of Nitrogen versus Light Limitation VII. Effect of Growth Pattern VIII. Conclusion References 8. On Size, Fecundity and Fitness in Competing Plants Lonnie W. Aarssen I. Introduction II. Defining the Components of Competitive Ability for Between-Species Plant Competition III. Predicting Fecundity Under Competition IV. Relationships Among Plant Traits Affecting Fecundity Under Competition: Alternative Ways to Compete Intensively While Avoiding Competitive Exclusion V. Preliminary Empirical Tests VI. Predicting Winner from Rank Orders in Plant Competition: Lessons from Sports Competition VII. Conclusions
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