The link between reproductive health and the environment has been strengthened by the findings of recent studies. It is becoming increasingly important to link results and data from such studies into a model that aids in the explanation of phenomena observed in the field and facilitates predictability. To this end, the aim of this book is to review recent trends and developments in the study of the impact that the environment has on human reproduction. These issues are thoroughly examined, using the most modern techniques and methods available, to analyze the manner in which both male and female fertility can be affected and assessed. Such diverse factors as toxic environmental contaminants, air pollution, and exposure to medical drugs are examined. The book includes both a historical overview and a look towards the future, aiming to integrate health concerns into policy-making and legislation.