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The following 11 species of filefishes (Monacanthidae) are recognized in the genus Cantherhines Swainson: C. cerinus, a new species represented by three specimens from the Philippines, is distinguished by lacking spines or a patch of setae on the caudal peduncle, relatively short first dorsal spine, elevated anterior soft dorsal fin, low count of 27-31 gill rakers, and yellowish ground color; C. dumerilii (Hollard), the most widespread species (Gulf of Aden to the eastern Pacific); C. fronticinctus (Günther) from the western Indian Ocean to the western Pacific; C. longicaudus Hutchins & Randall, the range extended here from French Polynesia and the Cook Islands to New Caledonia and Lord Howe Island; C. macroceros, the largest species, wide-ranging in the western Atlantic; C. nukuhiva, a new species endemic to the Marquesas Islands (formerly identified as C. pardalis), differing in more uniform body coloration, lack of white spots anterodorsally on the caudal peduncle, longer soft dorsal and anal rays, and larger average size; C. pardalis (Rüppell), Indo-Pacific except the Hawaiian Islands in the North Pacific and east of the Samoa and Cook Islands in the South Pacific; C. pullus (Ranzani), wide-ranging in the Atlantic (sister species of C. pardalis); C. rapanui (de Buen), endemic to Easter Island; C. sandwichiensis (Quoy & Gaimard), antitropical in the Pacific (Hawaiian Islands in the north and Cook Islands, Rapa, and Pitcairn Islands in the south); and C. verecundus (E. K. Jordan), endemic to the Hawaiian Islands.