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Thirteen species of serranid fishes of the anthiine genus Odontanthias are known from the Indo-Pacific region: borbonius (Valenciennes, 1828) from the western Indian Ocean to the western Pacific; caudicinctus (Heemstra & Randall, 1986) from the east coast of Africa; chrysostictus (Günther, 1872) from Indonesia; dorsomaculatus Katayama & Yamamoto, 1986 from the Saya de Malha Bank, Indian Ocean; elizabethae Fowler, 1923 from the Hawaiian Islands and Johnston Island; flagris Yoshino & Araga, 1975 from the Ryukyu and Ogasawara Islands; fuscipinnis (Jenkins, 1901) from the Hawaiian Islands and Johnston Island; grahami, new species from New South Wales; katayamai (Randall, Maugé & Plessis, 1979) from the Mariana Islands, southern Japan, and Taiwan; rhodopeplus (Günther, 1872) from Sulawesi, southern Japan, Taiwan, and southwest India (Holanthias perumali Talwar, 1976 is regarded a synonym); tapui (Randall, Maugé & Plessis, 1979) from the Tuamotu Archipelago, Society Islands, Cook Islands, and Tonga; unimaculatus (Tanaka, 1917) from southern Japan to Luzon; and wassi, new species, from American Samoa. Most of these fishes have been classified in the genus Holanthias, now restricted to two species in the eastern Atlantic. Two Indo-Pacific species formerly classified in Holanthias, H. natalensis (Fowler, 1925) from the western Indian Ocean and H. kingyo Kon, Yoshino & Sakurai, 2000 from Okinawa, are placed in the new genus Meganthias, distinct in having many accessory scales on the head, a finely serrate preopercular margin with no enlarged spine at the angle, the upper posterior end of the maxilla rounded, rugose lips, 8 or 9 instead of 7 (rarely 8) anal soft rays, third anal spine clearly longer than second spine, deep body, and large size.