A taxonomic revision of the scorpionfish (gurnard perch) genus Neosebastes Guichenot (Scorpaeniformes: Neosebastidae) resulted in 12 species of the genus being recognized, five of which are described as new: N. bougainvillii (Cuvier) from South Australia to southwestern Western Australia (senior synonym of N. pantica McCulloch and Waite); N. capricornis n. sp. from New Caledonia; N. entaxis Jordan and Starks from southern Japan and Taiwan; N. incisipinnis Ogilby from central Queensland to southern New South Wales; N. johnsoni n. sp. from Queensland; N. longirostris n. sp. from northwestern Western Australia; N. nigropunctatus McCulloch from South Australia to southwestern Western Australia; N. multisquamus n. sp. from the Ogasawara Islands; N. occidentalis n. sp. from western central Western Australia; N. pandas (Richardson) from South Australia to southwestern Western Australia; N. scorpaenoides Guichenot from central New South Wales to western South Australia (senior synonym of Scorpaena ambigua Klunzinger); and N. thetidis (Waite) from central New South Wales to southwestern Western Australia. Pseudosebastes Sauvage (type species, Sebastes boagainvillii) and Sebastosemus Gill (type species, N. entaxis) are junior synonyms of Neosebastes. A key to the species of Neosebastes is provided. Life stages, diagnostic characters and distribution map of each species are figured, and detailed comparisons made. Distributional implications of the genus are also discussed and some habitat notes included. Lectotypes for N. incisipinnis and Sebastes thetidis, and a neotype for Scorpaena panda are designated.