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About this book
About this book
Written for the owners or managers of small construction businesses, the ROMAR handbook and workbook provide both the management and technical advice needed in order to make a success of routine maintenance and regravelling as a business activity. The handbook and workbook can be used together by reading the chapter in the handbook and then working through the examples in the workbook. The first part of the books deals with the principles and include the following: a summary of technical considerations and engineering standards for earth and gravel roads, and introduction to choosing appropriate road construction and maintenance technology, soil mechanics, equipment and the major operations in a typical labour-based road project using a case study of one of the most successful labour-based road programmes in Africa. The second part looks at putting those principles into practice - how roads deterioate and how to manage maintenance contracts, how to carry out regravelling projects, pricing and bidding for road maintenance contracts and how to build up detailed prices for a bill of quantities. With particular reference to labour-based projects, advice is included on how to manage people, covering team building, communication, training, motivation, incentives and how to ensure good discipline and morale.
Part 1 Roads - their purpose, terminology and standards: learning objectives; introduction; the purpose of roads; construction standards; classification; road works terminology; cross-section terms; drainage terms; major structures; principal standards for earth and gravel road. Appropriate road construction and maintenance technology: learning objective; introduction; the market for small-scale road work contractors; technology option; your choice. Soil mechanics: learning objectives; introduction; how soil is described; soils; grading; other characteristics; soil conditions; the surface layer; soil identification procedure; simple field tests; compaction. Equipment and tools: learning objectives; introduction; plant for routine maintenance and regravelling; maintenance and repair arrangements; maintenance organization; workshop facilities, staffing and activities; planning and reporting systems; service schedules; hand tools for routine maintenance. Introduction to labour-based road construction: learning objectives; introduction; site organization and support work; organization staffing; site camp establishment; site stores, equipment and tools; employment of casual labour; construction activities; setting out: horizontal and vertical alignment; general; description of measuring and control aids; control of road alignment; drainage and erosion control; productivity; low-cost structures; gravelling; alternative pavements; planning and reporting systems; example: construction activity steps. Part 2 Road maintenance: learning objectives; introduction; mechanisms of deterioration of roads; deterioration of roads; failure of roads; maintenance systems; routine maintenance; periodic maintenance; emergency management; introduction; road inventories; assessment of maintenance requirements; setting maintenance priorities; preparation of work plans; implementation of maintenance work; reporting and monitoring; safety measures for work sites. Routine maintenance: learning objectives; introduction; part 1 planning: organizing the work, general, site inspection, types of contract, the lengthperson system, the single gang system, the gang system, planning and monitoring maintenance work, priorities for maintenance activities, work planning, work supervision and monitoring. Par 2 routine maintenance activities: introduction, activities 1-12. Regravelling: learning objectives; introduction; the gravel layer; organization and planning of works; general; operational approaches; tractor trailer hauling; lorry hauling; animal-drawn carts; site organization; site camp establishment. (Part contents).