What difference does it make who pays for science?
Some might say none. If scientists seek to discover fundamental truths about the world, and they do so in an objective manner using well-established methods, then how could it matter who's footing the bill? History, however, suggests otherwise. In science, as elsewhere, money is power. Tracing the recent history of oceanography, Naomi Oreskes discloses dramatic changes in American ocean science since the Cold War, uncovering how and why it changed. Much of it has to do with who pays.
After World War II, the US military turned to a new, uncharted theater of warfare: the deep sea. The earth sciences – particularly physical oceanography and marine geophysics – became essential to the US navy, who poured unprecedented money and logistical support into their study. Science on a Mission brings to light how the influx of such military funding was both enabling and constricting: it resulted in the creation of important domains of knowledge, but also significant, lasting, and consequential domains of ignorance.
As Oreskes delves into the role of patronage in the history of science, what emerges is a vivid portrait of how naval oversight transformed what we know about the sea. It is a detailed, sweeping history that illuminates the ways in which funding shapes the subject, scope, and tenor of scientific work, and it raises profound questions over the purpose and character of American science. What difference does it make who pays? The short answer is: a lot.
1 The Personal, the Political, and the Scientific
2 Seeing the Ocean through Operational Eyes: The Stommel-Arons Model of Abyssal Circulation
3 Whose Science Is It Anyway? The Woods Hole Palace Revolt
4 Stymied by Secrecy: Harry Hess and Seafloor Spreading
5 The Iron Curtain of Classification: What Difference Did It Make?
6 Why the Navy Built Alvin
7 Painting Projects White: The Discovery of Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vents
8 From Expertise to Advocacy: The Seabed Disposal of Radioactive Waste
9 Changing the Mission: From the Cold War to Climate Change
Conclusion: The Context of Motivation
Sources and Abbreviations
"This book shows why oceanography may be the vital science whose history we need to understand if we want a picture of the evolving relationships between science and the American state over the last century. With her characteristic but rare combination of philosophical and historical insight, and her sharp eye for the politics beneath the surface, Oreskes has skillfully interpreted the wide-ranging legacies of oceanography, and brought them into our understanding of scientific – and political – debates of the present day."
– Katharine Anderson, York University