The Indo-Pacific labrid fish genus Leptojulis Bleeker is characterized by IX,11 or 12 dorsal rays; usually 13 pectoral rays; 2 pairs of large canine teeth anteriorly in both jaws, the second pair of adults recurved and outflaring; and a moderately elongate body (depth 3.7-5.0 in SL); and a continuous lateral line with 27 scales (subgenus Leptojulis) or 46 scales (Neojulis, n. subg.). The subgenus Leptojulis is represented by L. cyanopleura (Bleeker) which ranges from the Solomon Islands to the Gulf of Oman; L. chrysotaenia Randall and Ferraris from Indonesia to SW India; L. lambdastigma Randall and Ferraris from the Philippines and Taiwan; and L. urostigma, n. sp. from Indonesia to Taiwan, distinct in having a black spot about as large as the eye on the scaled basal part of the caudal fin. The subgenus Neojulis includes only L. polylepis, n. sp., from Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, and the Solomon Islands.