The synchronized flashing of fireflies at night. The spiraling patterns of an aggregating slime mold. The anastomosing network of army-ant trails. The coordinated movements of a school of fish. Researchers are finding in such patterns – phenomena that have fascinated naturalists for centuries – a fertile new approach to understanding biological systems: the study of self-organization. Self-Organization in Biological Systems, a primer on self-organization in biological systems for students and other enthusiasts, introduces readers to the basic concepts and tools for studying self-organization and then examines numerous examples of self-organization in the natural world.
Self-organization refers to diverse pattern formation processes in the physical and biological world, from sand grains assembling into rippled dunes to cells combining to create highly structured tissues to individual insects working to create sophisticated societies. What these diverse systems hold in common is the proximate means by which they acquire order and structure. In self-organizing systems, pattern at the global level emerges solely from interactions among lower-level components. Remarkably, even very complex structures result from the iteration of surprisingly simple behaviors performed by individuals relying on only local information. This striking conclusion suggests important lines of inquiry: To what degree is environmental rather than individual complexity responsible for group complexity? To what extent have widely differing organisms adopted similar, convergent strategies of pattern formation? How, specifically, has natural selection determined the rules governing interactions within biological systems?
Broad in scope, thorough yet accessible, Self-Organization in Biological Systems is a self-contained introduction to self-organization and complexity in biology – a field of study at the forefront of life sciences research.
"We suspect that the ideas associated with self-organization will play an increasingly prominent role in biology for some time to come [...] Self-Organization in Biological Systems presents a unique opportunity to watch a group of active researchers apply these intriguing concepts to formerly mystifying feats of social organization in animals. We know of no better guide for those who wish to understand how modeling can be used to dissect the mechanisms of self-organized biological systems."
– John W. Pepper and Guy Hoelzer, Science
"[An] exceptionally well organized and superbly illustrated volume."
"An important contribution to biology, and to complex systems research more generally, and certainly an enthralling subject."
– Carl Anderson, Complexity
"This is a fascinating and thought-provoking book [...] The authors provide an excellent introduction to the main ideas underlying the theory of self-organization and also deal with some of the criticisms leveled at this emerging field [...] An eminently readable and stimulating book."
– Jens Krause and Iain Couzin, The Quarterly Review of Biology
"Considering the complexity of the subject, this account is surprisingly and pleasantly accessible and readable. It is one of the few biology books that will appeal equally to research workers and undergraduates."
– Bulletin of the British Ecological Society
"This book is an entertaining and well-written introduction to the basics of self-organization [...] Given the clear prose and interesting examples, this book should have wide appeal."
– Diane Lipscomb, Science Books & Film
"Broad in scope, thorough yet accessible, this book is a self-contained introduction to self-organization and complexity in biology – at the forefront of life sciences research."
– Zentralblatt MATH
"The authors' lively yet scholarly account of the rapidly emerging new science of group behavior should captivate anyone who has an inquiring mind and a curiosity about what new directions biology is taking, including undergraduate and graduate students looking for an exciting new way to do biology. This book is a major contribution, not only to biology, but well beyond."
– Robert Jeanne, University of Wisconsin-Madison
"This ambitious volume has the potential to be a pivotal (even breakthrough) contribution to the biology of complex systems. It aims to facilitate both conceptual understanding and also correct application of the principles of self-organization in a biological context."
– Kern Reeve, Cornell University
Explanation of Color Plates vii
Prologue: Aims and Scope of the Book 2
Part I. Introduction to Biological Self-Organization 5
Chapter 1. What Is Self-Organization? 7
Chapter 2. How Self-Organization Works 15
Chapter 3. Characteristics of Self-Organizing Systems 29
Chapter 4. Alternatives to Self-Organization 47
Chapter 5. Why Self-Organization? 63
Chapter 6. Investigation of Self-Organization 69
Chapter 7. Misconceptions about Self-Organization 88
Part II. Case Studies 93
Chapter 8. Pattern Formation in Slime Molds and Bacteria 95
Chapter 9. Feeding Aggregations of Bark Beetles 121
Chapter 10. Synchronized Flashing among Fireflies 143
Chapter 11. Fish Schooling 167
Chapter 12. Nectar Source Selection by Honey Bees 189
Chapter 13. Trail Formation in Ants 217
Chapter 14. The Swarm Raids of Army Ants 257
Chapter 15. Colony Thermoregulation in Honey Bees 285
Chapter 16. Comb Patterns in Honey Bee Colonies 309
Chapter 17. Wall Building by Ants 341
Chapter 18. Termite Mound Building 377
Chapter 19. Construction Algorithms in Wasps 405
Chapter 20. Dominance Hierarchies in Paper Wasps 443
Part III. Conclusions 483
Chapter 21. Lessons, Speculations, and the Future of Self-Organization 485
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Scott Camazine is the author of The Naturalist's Year and Velvet Mites and Silken Webs. Jean-Louis Deneubourg is Research Fellow at the Belgian Fund for Scientific Research and at the Centre for Non-Linear Phenomena and Complex Systems at the Université Libre de Bruxelles, Belgium, where he is also Professor of Behavioral Ecology. Nigel R. Franks is Professor of Animal Behavior and Ecology at the University of Bristol and the coauthor of Social Evolution in Ants (Princeton). James Sneyd is Associate Professor of Mathematics at Massey University, New Zealand and the coauthor of Mathematical Physiology. Guy Theraulaz is Research Fellow at the National Center for Scientific Research in Toulouse, France, and at Paul Sabatier University. Eric Bonabeau is Chief Scientist at EuroBios in Paris, France. Bonabeau and Theraulaz are coauthors of Swarm Intelligence: From Natural to Artificial Systems.