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The most seriously threatened European seas are the North Sea, the Baltic and the Black Sea. Sensitivity to Change: Black Sea, Baltic Sea and North Sea examines the rapid degradation of these marine environments comparatively to identify similarities and differences in the driving forces and responses of the marine systems. Although it is difficult to distinguish between anthropogenic changes and those due to natural climate fluctuations, an attempt is made here to define possible effects based on a multidisciplinary mix of recent observations and modelling.
The systems studied range from almost totally enclosed domains to marginal seas adjoining a large ocean body, and from shallow, dissipative and tidally dominated shelf regions to deep, relatively stagnant basins with adjoining energetic shelf regions, and from completely anoxic to oxygen-saturated chemical environments. Climate control appears as a background theme, while the most significant human effect is eutrophication, which is leading to rapid changes in these systems.
A Synopsis and Recommendations for Future Studies
- Changes of Mean Sea Level and Ice Conditions in Gdynia as Indicators of Climate Changes in the Gulf of Gdansk; M. Sztobryn, et al.
- Variability of Northwestern Black Sea Hydrography and River Discharges as Part of the Global Ocean-Atmosphere Fluctuations; A. Polonsky, et al.
- Recent Man-Made Changes in the Black Sea Ecosystem; Yu.P. Zaitse, B.G. Alexandrov
- Seasonal and Long-Term Variability of the Black Sea Optical Parameters; V.L. Vladimirov, et al.
- The Nutrient Stock of the Romanian Shelf of the Black Sea During the Last Three Decades; A. Cociasu, et al.
- Distribution and Fluctuation of Dominant Zooplankton Species in the Southern Black Sea in Comparison to the North Sea and Baltic Sea; U. Niermann, W. Greve
- Some Aspects of Phytoplankton Long-Term Alterations off Bulgarian Black Sea Shelf; S. Moncheva, A. Krastev
- Sensitivity to Anthropogenic Factors of the Plankton Fauna Adjacent to the Bulgarian oast of the Black Sea; A. Konsulov, L. Kamburska
- Long-Term Variability of Phytoplankton Communities in Open Black Sea in Relation to Environmental Changes; A.S. Mikaelyan
- Mnemiopsis Leidyi Abundance in the Black Sea and Its Impact on the Pelagic Community; T.A. Shiganova
- Seasonal Variation of Surface Pigment Distribution in the Black Sea on CZCS Data; N.P. Nezlin
- The Effect of Hydrological Conditions on the State of Herring Stocks in the Baltic Sea; T. Raid
- Role of Fishing in the Black Sea Ecosystem; A.C. Gucu
- Environmental Impact on Fish Resources in the Black Sea; K. Prodanov, et al.
- Variations in the Vertical Structure of Water Chemistry within the Three Hydrodynamically Different Regions of the Black Sea; O. Basturk, et al.
- Spatial Isopycnal Analysis of the Main Pycnocline Chemistry of the Black Sea: Seasonal and Interannual Variations; S. Konovalov, et al.
- Suspended Matter as an Index of Productivity in the Western Black Sea (Application for Productivity and Eutrophication Control); S.V. Vostokov
- Particulate Organic Matter of Black Sea Euphotic Zone: Seasonal and Long-Term Variation of Spatial Distribution and Composition; Z.P. Burlakova, et al.
- Time-Series Profiles of 134Cs, 134Cs and 90Sr in the Black Sea; K.O. Buesseler, H.D. Livingston
- Physical Oceanography Variability in the Black Sea Pycnocline; L.I. Ivanov, et al.
- The Black Sea Bottom Homogeneous Layer: A Simple Model of Formation; V.N. Eremeev, et al.
- Physical Processes of Surface-Deep Layers Exchange in The Black Sea; E. Demirov, et al.
- Convection in the Baltic Sea: A Numerical Process Study; J.O. Backhaus, H. Wehde
- An Ice/Ocean Model for North and Baltic Sea; C. Schrum
- Quantification of Transports to Skagerrak: A Modeling Approach; M.D. Skogen, et al.
- Eddy Dynamics Controlled by Basin Scale, Coastline and Topography; N.H. Rachev, E.V. Stanev
- Seasonal Variability of the Black Sea Climatic Circulation; D.I. Trukhchev, R.A. Ibrayev
- Cold Intermediate Water Formation in the Black Sea – Analysis on Numerical Model Simulations; J.V. Staneva, E.V. Stanev
- Circulation in Semi-Enclosed Seas Induced by Buoyancy Flux Through A Strait; G.K. Korotaev
- Modelling of Strait Dynamics: The Baltic Experiments; E. Sayin
- Heat and Salt Intrusions in the Pycnocline from Sinking Plumes. Test Case for the Entrainment in the Black Sea; J.A. Simeonov, et al.
- Coastal Eutrophication of the Southern Bight of the North Sea: Assessment and Modelling; C. Lancelot, et al.
- Modelling the Functioning of the North-Western Black Sea Ecosystem from 1960 to Present; D. van Eeckhout, C. Lancelot
- Towards Coupling Three Dimensional Eddy Resolving General Circulation and Biochemical Models in the Black Sea; T. Oğuz, et al.
- Coupled Hydrodynamic Ecosystem Model of the Black Sea at Basin Scale: Model Description and First Results; M. Grégoire, et al.
- Atmospheric Transport of Desert Dust Toward European Seas: Model Parameterisation and a Simulated Case; S. Dobricic