All Shops

Go to British Wildlife

6 issues per year 84 pages per issue Subscription only

British Wildlife is the leading natural history magazine in the UK, providing essential reading for both enthusiast and professional naturalists and wildlife conservationists. Published six times a year, British Wildlife bridges the gap between popular writing and scientific literature through a combination of long-form articles, regular columns and reports, book reviews and letters.

Subscriptions from £25 per year

Conservation Land Management

4 issues per year 44 pages per issue Subscription only

Conservation Land Management (CLM) is a quarterly magazine that is widely regarded as essential reading for all who are involved in land management for nature conservation, across the British Isles. CLM includes long-form articles, events listings, publication reviews, new product information and updates, reports of conferences and letters.

Subscriptions from £18 per year
Academic & Professional Books  Organismal to Molecular Biology  General Biology

Shaping Biology The National Science Foundation and American Biological Research, 1945-1975

By: Toby A Appel
Shaping Biology
Click to have a closer look
Select version
  • Shaping Biology ISBN: 9780801863219 Hardback Aug 2000 Usually dispatched within 4 days
Selected version: £36.50
About this book Customer reviews Biography Related titles

About this book

Historians of the post-war transformation of science have focused largely on the physical sciences, especially the relation of science to the military funding agencies. In this work, Toby A. Appel brings attention to the National Science Foundation and federal patronage of the biological sciences. Scientists by training, NSF biologists hoped in the 1950s that the new agency would become the federal government's chief patron for basic research in biology, the only agency to fund the entire range of biology - from molecules to natural history museums - for its own sake. Appel traces how this vision emerged and developed over the next two and a half decades, from the activities of NSF's Division of Biological and Medical Sciences, founded in 1952, through the Cold War expansion of the 1950s and 1960s and the constraints of the Vietnam War era, to its reorganization out of existence in 1975. This history of NSF highlights fundamental tensions in science policy that remain relevant today: the pull between basic and applied science; funding individuals versus funding departments or institutions; elitism versus distributive policies of funding; issues of red tape and accountability. In his NSF-funded study, Appel explores how the agency developed, how it worked, and what difference it made in shaping modern biology in the United States. Based on formerly untapped archival sources as well as on interviews of participants, and building upon prior historical literature, the book aims to cover new ground and raise significant issues for further research on post-war biology and on federal funding of science in general.

Customer Reviews


Toby A. Appel is Historical Librarian with the Cushing/Whitney Medical Library, Yale University, and research associate of the Section of History of Medicine.
By: Toby A Appel
Media reviews
This is one of those rare books that historians and sociologists of science will use for a very long time as a valuable resource... Toby A. Appel's is a compelling and important story, written with a sense of humor and humanity. Annals of Science Appel has done a remarkable job. No subsequent historical work on NSF and the biological sciences can begin without building on the solid foundation she provides in Shaping Biology. -- James E. Strick Science Toby Appel does a thorough, scholarly job of bringing to life... the National Science Foundation. -- James P. Collins Journal of the History of Biology This path-breaking book on the National Science Foundation (NSF) represents the first detailed empirical study of this agency in the making of 'policy' for the life sciences in the United States since 1945. -- Nicolas Rasmussen Politics by Science Based on previously unexamined archival sources, Appel's analysis is clearly presented and well documented. She provides critical policy context for NSF decisions in biology by discussing their elevance to NIH, other federal agencies, and both national and international political events. -- Victoria A. Harden Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences
Current promotions
Field Guide SalePelagic PublishingBritish WildlifeOrder your free copy of our 2018 equipment catalogue