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Sika deer, the graceful spotted deer of Japanese and Chinese art, originally were native to Asia from far-east Russia to Vietnam to the islands of Japan and Taiwan. They are widely raised in captivity to supply velvet antler for traditional medicine. They also were introduced to Europe, North America, and New Zealand, where they compete or interbreed with native deer. Sika deer typically occupy lowland hardwood forests with low winter snow depths, where they thrive in sites disturbed by fire, storm, or logging.
In high numbers they can severely impact vegetation though overgrazing, stripping bark from trees and damaging crop fields and forest plantations. Their numbers are high in many parts of Japan, moderate in Russia, and reduced or extinct in the wild in China, Korea, Vietnam, and Taiwan. This book explores their basic biology, behavior, and ecology, including management for sport hunting, conservation or recovery of threatened populations, and resolution of conflict with humans in native and introduced lands.
1 Introduction Dale R. McCullough Part I Basic Biology 2 Fossil Record of Sika Deer in Japan Yoshinari Kawamura 3 Two Genetically Distinct Lineages of the Japanese Sika Deer Based on Mitochondrial Control Regions Nagata 4 Evolutionary Significance of Admixture and Fragmentation of Sika Deer Populations in Japan Hidetoshi B. Tamate 5 Nutritional Physiology of Wild and Domesticated Japanese Sika Deer Takayoshi Masuko and Kousaku Souma 6 Endocrinology of Sika Deer Kiyoshi Yamauchi and Yukiko Matsuura 7 Reproduction of Female Sika Deer in Japan, with Special Reference to Kinkazan Island, Northern Japan Nobumasa Ohnishi, Masato Minami, Rie Nishiya, Kotoyo Yamada, Hiroyuki Nishizuka, Hiroshi Higuchi, Azusa Nara, Masatsugu Suzuki, and Seiki Takatsuki Part II Food and Habitat Relations 8 Food Habits of Sika Deer on Kinkazan Island, Northern Japan with Reference to Local Variations, Size Effects,and Comparison with the Main Island Seiki Takatsuki and U. K. G. K. Padmalal 9 Plants and Plant Communities on Kinkazan Island, Northern Japan, in Relation to Sika Deer Herbivory Seiki Takatsuki and Takehiko Y. Ito 10 Productivity and Foraging Efficiency of the Short-Grass (Zoysia japonica) Community for Sika Deer Takehiko Y. Ito, Mariko Shimoda, and Seiki Takatsuki 11 Home Range, Habitat Selection, and Food Habits of the Sika Deer Using the Short-Grass Community on Kinkazan Island, Northern Japan Takehiko Y. Ito and Seiki Takatsuki 12 Shift to Litterfall as Year-Round Forage for Sika Deer after a Population Crash Masami Miyaki and Koichi Kaji 13 The Dynamics of Forest Stands Affected by Sika Deer on Nakanoshima Island--Change of Size Structure Similar to the Thinning Effect Masami Miyaki and Koichi Kaji 14 Biology of Sika Deer in Hyogo: Characteristics of Reproduction, Food Habits, Growth, and Condition Mayumi Yokoyama 15 Bark-Stripping Preference of Sika Deer and Its Seasonality on Mt. Ohdaigahara, Central Japan Masaki Ando and Ei'ichi Shibata 16 North-South Variations in Sika Deer Ecology as a Forest-Dwelling Cervid Seiki Takatsuki 17 Geographical Variations in Food Habits of Sika Deer: The Northern Grazer vs. the Southern Browser Seiki Takatsuki 18 What Is "Natural" Vegetation? A Reconsideration of Herbivory by Wild Ungulates Seiki TakatsukiPart III Behavior: Migration and Breeding Systems 19 Seasonal Migration of Sika Deer on Hokkaido Island, Japan Hiromasa Igota, Mayumi Sakuragi, and Hiroyuki Uno 20 Migratory and Sedentary Behavior Patterns of Sika Deer in Honshu and Kyushu, Japan Tsuneaki Yabe and Seiki Takatsuki 21 Variation in Mating Behavior of Sika Deer: Mating Behaviorof Sika Deer on Nozaki Island Akira Endo 22 Reproductive Ecology of Sika Deer on Kinkazan Island, Northern Japan: Reproductive Success of Males and Multi-Mating of Females Masato Minami, Nobumasa Ohnishi, Ayumi Okada, and Seiki Takatsuki 23 Life-Time Reproductive Success of Female Sika Deer on Kinkazan Island, Northern Japan Masato Minami, Nobumasa Ohnishi, Naoko Higuchi, Ayumi Okada, and Seiki Takatsuki 24 Reproduction of Female Sika Deer in Western Japan Toru Koizumi, Shin-ichiro Hamasaki, Mayumi Kishimoto, Mayumi Yokoyama, Masato Kobayashi, and Aiko Yasutake Color Plates Part IV Population Dynamics and Management 25 Sika Deer in Nara Park: Unique Human-Wildlife Relations Harumi Torii and Shirow Tatsuzawa 26 A 20-Year History of Sika Deer Management in the Mt. Goyo Area, Northern Honshu Seiki Takatsuki 27 Survival Patterns of Male and Female Sika Deer on Kinkazan Island, Northern Japan Masato Minami, Nobumasa Ohnishi, and Seiki Takatsuki 28 Sika Deer in an Evergreen Broad-Leaved Forest Zone on the Boso Peninsula, Japan Masahiko Asada and Keiji Ochiai 29 Sika Deer Population Irruptions and Their Management on Hokkaido Island, Japan Hiroyuki Uno, Koichi Kaji, and Katsumi Tamada 30 Irruptive Behavior of Sika Deer Koichi Kaji, Hiroshi Takahashi, Hideaki Okada, Masao Kohira, and Masami Yamanaka 31 The Management of Sika Deer Populations in Hyogo Prefecture, Japan Hiroshi Sakata, Shin-ichiro Hamasaki, and Hiromune Mitsuhashi 32 Management Strategy of Sika Deer Based on Sensitivity Analysis Shingo Miura and Kunihiko Tokida Part V Sika in Mainland Asia and Taiwan 33 Sika Deer in Russia Vladimir V. Aramilev 34 Sika Deer Distribution Changes at the Northern Extent of Their Range in the Sikhote-Alin Mountains of the Russian Far East Inna V. Voloshina and Alexander I. Myslenkov 35 Sika Deer in Mainland China Dale R. McCullough, Zhi-Gang Jiang, and Chun-Wang Li 36 Sika Deer in Korea and Vietnam Dale R. McCullough 37 Sika Deer in Taiwan Dale R. McCullough 38 The Present Status of the Re-introduced Sika Deerin Kenting National Park, Southern Taiwan Kurtis Jai-Chyi Pei Part VI Introduced Sika Deer 39 Sika Deer in Continental Europe Ludek BartoA! 40 Sika Deer in the British Isles Graeme M. Swanson and Rory Putman 41 Free--Ranging and Confined Sika Deer in North America: Current Status, Biology, and Management George A. Feldhamer and Stephen Demarais 42 The Sika in New Zealand D. Bruce Banwell Index