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During their ontogeny, trees undergo numerous changes in their physiological function, the structure and mechanical properties of their wood, and overall architecture and allometry. This book examines the central interplay between these changes and tree size and age. It also explores the impact these changes can have, at the level of the individual tree, on the emerging characteristics of forest ecosystems at various stages of their development.
List of contributors Preface SECTION I: THE WHOLE-LIFESPAN PERSPECTIVE ON INTEGRATION OF STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION 1. A Lifespan Perspective on Integrating Structure and Function in Trees Thomas M. Hinckley, Barbara Lachenbruch, Frederick C. Meinzer, and Todd E. Dawson SECTION II: REPRODUCTION AND REGENERATION 2. Age-related Changes in Tree Growth and Functional Biology: the Role of Reproduction Sean C. Thomas 3. The Earliest Stages of Tree Growth: Development, Physiology and Impacts of Climate Change Daniel Johnson, Katherine A. McCulloh, and Keith Reinhardt SECTION III: INTEGRATION OF STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION ACROSS ONTOGENY 4, Regulation of Ontogeny in Temperate Conifers Michael E. Day and Michael S. Greenwood 5. Radial Variation in Wood Structure and Function in Woody Plants, and Hypotheses for its Occurrence Barbara Lachenbruch, John R. Moore, and Robert Evans 6. Size-related Changes in Tree Proportions and Their Potential Influence on the Course of Height Growth David A. King 7. Influence of Tree Ontogeny on Plant-Herbivore Interactions Karina Boege, Kasey E. Barton, and Rodolfo Dirzo 8. How do Changes in Leaf/shoot Morphology and Crown Architecture Affect Growth and Physiological Function of Large, old Trees? Hiroaki Ishii SECTION IV: PHOTOSYNTHETIC GAS EXCHANGE AND CARBON BALANCE 9. Tree size- and Age-Related Changes in Leaf Physiology and Their Influence on Carbon Gain Kathy Steppe, Adegreelo Niinemets, and Robert O. Teskey 10. Relationships Between Tree Height and Carbon Isotope Discrimination Nate G. McDowell, Barbara J. Bond, Lee T. Hill, Michael G. Ryan, and David Whitehead 11. Carbon Storage in Trees: Does Relative Carbon Supply Decrease With Tree Size? Anna Sala,Willa Fouts, and Gunter Hoch SECTION V: WATER RELATIONS AND TRANSPORT PROCESSES 12. Comparative Criteria for Models of the Fluid Transport System of Tall Trees Maurizio Mencuccini, Teemu Holtta, and Jordi Martinez-Vilalta 13. Hydraulic Capacitance: Biophysics and Functional Significance of Internal Water Sources in Relation to Tree Size Fabian G. Scholz, Nathan G. Phillips, Sandra J. Bucci, Frederick C. Meinzer, and Guillermo Goldstein 14. Size-Dependent Changes in Biophysical Control of Tree Growth: the Role of Turgor David R. Woodruff and Frederick C. Meinzer 15. Instrumental Approaches to Studying Tree Water Relations Along Gradients of Tree Size and Forest Age Jan Aiermak and Nadezhda Nadezhdina SECTION VI: SCALING FROM INDIVIDUAL TRAITS TO STANDS 16. Ecophysiology of Secondary Succession in Tropical Moist Forest: Scaling From Individual Traits to Whole-Plant Performance Niels Anten and N. Galia Selaya 17. Age-Dependent Changes in Environmental Influences on Tree Growth and Their Implications for Forest Responses to Climate Change Steven L. Voelker 18. Consequences of Stand age and Species' Functional Trait Changes on Ecosystem Water use of Forests Brent Ewers, D. Scott Mackay, and Ben Bond-Lamberty