Environmental degradation has been recognised as high-impact physical and social problem that could lead to worldwide environmental catastrophe. Evaluation of environmental degradation and natural resource depletion is, therefore, essential for the long-term management of natural resources and the nourishment of livelihoods that are dependent on them. The general focus of this book is to provide scientific-based information and understanding about the interaction between Land use and Cover Change (LUCC), soil erosion, and sediment yield. Thereby, to propose options or scenarios for sustainable use of land and water resources. To this end, the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia (CRV), which is located in the southern part of the country and has faced a serious land use and cover change and erosion damage, was taken as a model. This scientific result could generally be used as a tool in the environment rehabilitation program, given that, if they can be properly implemented they can significantly reduce the existing soil loss amount from the region and could create a sustainable ecosystem in the future.