240 pages, 100 illustrations, includes DVD-ROM
The book covers rock stress in a way such that geoscience students will be able to grasp the Cauchy Stress Principle without fear of matrix transformations in an exercise. Students interested in maths, physics and engineering will learn to cement a strain gauge on a rock specimen, measure residual strains by multiple overcoring and evaluate the results. Leading edge technology in determining stress (Kaiser Effect) is presented together with classical methods (Hydraulic Fracturing). In addition, borehole techniques (Breakouts) and drillcore techniques (Anelastic Strain Recovery) are illustrated.
With respect to stress data, locations of global interest are chosen where integrated stress determination strategies have been applied. Each case study presented has special application, like the scientific ultra-deep drilling project (KTB, Germany), drilling of seismic active fault zones (SAFOD, USA) and excavation for nuclear waste disposal (Forsmark, Sweden). Stress compilations viewed by the World Stress Map project are presented and interpreted in terms of plate tectonics.
Endorsements: "The book thoroughly and convincingly integrates in situ stress, its sources, measurement, and applications, into the fields of geophysics, geology, geomechanics, and geoengineering. It is therefore that I enthusiastically recommend Stress Field of the Earth's Crust." (Bezalel Haimson, University of Wisconsin, Madison, USA, June 2009) "I think it is a very good text that covers the most important aspects of the Kaiser effect, its mechanisms and how it can be used for stress measurements in rocks." (Alexandre Lavrov, SINTEF Petroleum Research, Norway) "It is beautifully laid out, easy to read, and impossible not to understand!. I especially like the way that many of the diagrams have such iconic simplicity so that the extranneous detail has been removed - leaving only the message that the diagram is transmitting." (John A. Hudson, Emeritus Professor, Imperial College, UK, President, International Society for Rock Mechanics) From the reviews: "The presentation of the book is clear, with an abundant bibliography. ! I found the Note boxes that summarize important results to be particularly welcome. ! In conclusion, this book is undoubtedly focused on stress field of the Earth crust. ! I definitely would recommend this book to Earth Scientists in need to better understanding of stress measurement techniques, and to Rock Mechanics engineers who want to improve their understanding of the stress field at the scale of plate tectonics." (Francois Henri Cornet, International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, September, 2010)
Preface 1. Introduction 1.1 Exercise of Stress Visualisation 1.2 Importance of Rock Stress 1.3 History of Rock 2. Stress Definition 2.1 Stress Tensor 2.2 Principal Stresses 2.3 Mohr Circle of Stress 2.4 Visualizing Stress 3. Rock Fracture Criteria 3.1 Phenomenological Theories 3.2 Mechanistic Failure Theories 3.3 Fracture Mechanics 3.3.1 Crack Initiation Models 3.3.2 Fracture Propagation Models 3.4 Nonlinear Fracture Mechanics 4. Rock Stress Terminology 4.1 Gravity 4.2 Tectonic Stress 4.3 Residual Stress 4.4 Structural Stress 4.4.1 Anisotropy 4.4.2 Heterogeneity 5. Earth Stress Models 5.1 Hydrostatic Stress 5.2 Biaxial State of Stress 5.3 Tectonic Stress Field 5.4 Effective Stress 5.5 Laboratory Stress Profiles 6. Physics of Stress Measurements 6.1 Mechanical Methods 6.2 Strain Gages 6.3 Diffraction Methods 6.4 Optical Methods 6.5 Ultrasonic Wave Speed 6.6 Micromagnetic Method 7. Measuring Crustal Stress - Borehole Methods 7.1 Hydraulic Fracturing 7.1.1 Theory of HF 7.1.2 Practise of HF 7.2 Borehole Breakouts 7.2.1 Theory of BBO 7.2.2 Practise of BBO 8. Measuring Crustal Stress - Core-Based Methods 8.1 Anelastic Strain Recovery 8.1.1 Theory of ASR 8.1.2 Practise of ASR 8.2 Kaiser Effect 8.2.1 Triaxial Stress Approach 8.2.2 Uniaxial Stress Approach 8.2.3 Core Damage and KE 8.2.4 Microphysical Models 9. Local Stress Data 9.1 Continental Deep Drilling Site KTB, Germany 9.2 Nuclear Waste Site Olkiluoto, Finland 9.3 San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth, USA 10. Global Stress Data 10.1 General Genetics 10.1.1 Magnitude-Depth Profiles 10.1.2 Stress Direction Maps and Smoothing 10.1.3 Stress State-Scale Relations 10.1.4 Best Estimated Stress Model 10.2 European and World Stress Map 10.3 Plate Tectonic Interpretation Stress References
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