448 pages, 210 illus
Sugar beet, alongside sugar cane is the main source of sugar across the world. The crop is grown widely in North America, across Europe, the Russian Federation, Japan and some parts of South America in a multi-billion dollar global industry.
This comprehensive book provides full details of all aspects of the crop, including its agronomy, botany, harvesting and processing. Chapters are written by many experts from around the world. It is an essential purchase for anyone involved with the sugar beet crop and the sugar industry.
The editor has done well to ensure a consistent and high quality throughout. The style will engage lead practitioners and advisors, as well as students and researchers. Experimental Agriculture
Contents Contributors Foreword J D Pidgeon, Director, Broom's Barn Research Centre Preface and Acknowledgements A P Draycott, formerly of Broom's Barn Research Centre 1 Introduction A P Draycott, formerly of Broom's Barn Research Centre Origins of crop Production Crop improvement Where grown Sugar consumption Economics and politics World production of sugar from beet and cane Sugar beet performance Future Summary References 2 Development of sugar beet S A Francis, Broom's Barn Research Centre Introduction Early domestication of beet crops Development of sugar beet from fodder beet Discovery of sugar in roots of beet Re-examination of beets for sugar production First beet sugar factory Achard's legacy Establishment of a global beet sugar industry Europe North and South America Asia and Africa Technical development of sugar beet Plant breeding and genetics Agronomy and plant protection Crop mechanization Future developments References 3 Plant structure and crop physiology G F J Milford, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden. Introduction Canopy development and dry matter production Leaf canopies and radiation interception Factors affecting expansion of leaf area Storage root development and sugar accumulation Storage root development Sugar accumulation Nutritional physiology and beet quality Nitrogen relations Potassium and sodium Reproductive development Physiological and agronomic aspects of bolting Genetic and molecular control of flowering Summary References 4 Genetics and breeding N O Bosemark Introduction Objectives of sugar beet breeding Characters subjected to selection The inheritance of specific characters Autotetraploidy in sugar beet Selection methods Traditional methods of variety development in sugar beet Background to hybrid breeding in sugar beet Hybrid breeding methods and development of hybrid varieties Breeding for specific characters The impact of plant biotechnology on sugar beet breeding Strategies in a comprehensive hybrid breeding programme with sugar beet References 5 Seed production and quality A Kockelmann and U Meyer, KWS Introduction Methods of beet seed production Transplanting method Seed production Direct production method Flowering, maturation and seed harvest Flowering Maturation and harvest of sugar beet seed Drying and cleaning Seed yield and propagation ratios Seed processing Monogerm seed Multigerm seed Quality testing Laboratory methods Field tests Seed law requirements References 6 Soil tillage and crop establishment I Hakansson and L Henriksson, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, and J E Blomquist, Agraria Ord & Jord Objectives of tillage Primary tillage Stubble cultivation Mouldboard ploughing Reduced tillage Secondary tillage, sowing and post-sowing tillage Requirements for seed germination and plant emergence Objectives of seedbed preparation The function of the seedbed Techniques and implements for seedbed preparation Sowing and placement of seed Crust formation and crust breaking Adaptation to local conditions Mechanical weed control Soil compaction Factors determining compaction Short-term effects of compaction Long-term effects of plough-layer compaction Subsoil compaction Subsoil loosening Protection against wind erosion References 7 Agronomy K W Jaggard and A Qi, Broom's Barn Research Centre Introduction Crop growth Patterns during the growing season Photosynthesis and growth Light interception and yield Water use, light intercepted and yield Harvest index Analysing agronomy in physiological terms Assessing light interception Sowing date Plant establishment and spacing Nutrient application Harvest date Analysing the effects of weeds and virus yellows on growth and yield Weeds Virus yellows Mathematical models and their uses References 8 Nutrition - nitrogen M Cariolle and R Duval, Institut Technique Francais de la Betterave Industrielle Service Agronomie Importance Nitrogen uptake and concentration Nitrogen deficiency and its detection Effect of nitrogen on germination, emergence and establishment Effect of nitrogen on growth and yield Effect of nitrogen on root quality Soil supplies of nitrogen Form and application of nitrogen fertilizer Interactions with the environment Summary and conclusions References 9 Nutrition - phosphorus, sulphur, potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium and micronutrients - liming and nutrient deficiencies D R Christenson and A P Draycott Introduction Phosphorus Sulphur Potassium Sodium Calcium Magnesium Micronutrients or trace elements Soil acidity and liming Nutrient deficiencies References 10 Water use and irrigation R Morillo-Velarde, Associacion de Investigacion para la Mejora de Cultivo de la Remolacha Azucarera C/Metalurgian 36 and E S Ober, Broom's Barn Research Centre Introduction Water and physiology Defining the water status of plants and soils Water use by sugar beet Irrigation management Responses to irrigation Irrigation practices Deficit irrigation Salinity Germination and emergence Irrigation and other factors Drought tolerance References 11 Virus diseases M Stevens, Broom's Barn Research Centre, H-Y Liu, USDA-ARS and O Lemaire, INRA Equipe Vection Rhizomania Symptoms and damage Development and spread Causal agents Control Other soil-borne viruses Beet soil-borne Beet soil-borne mosaic Beet virus Q Beet oak-leaf Beet distortion mosaic Virus yellows Poleroviruses Beet yellows Other diseases References 12 Fungal and bacterial diseases M J C Asher, Broom's Barn Research Centre and L E Hanson, USDA-ARS Introduction Seedling diseases Aphanomyces seedling disease Pythium damping-off Rhizoctonia damping-off Phoma seedling disease Foliar diseases Cercospora leaf spot Powdery mildew Downy mildew Rust Ramularia leaf spot Phoma leaf spot Alternaria leaf spot Beet tumour (Urophlyctis) Rhizoctonia foliar blight Root diseases Aphanomyces root rot Rhizoctonia root and crown rot Violet root rot Charcoal rot Phymatotrichum root rot Phytophthora root rot Pythium root rot Rhizopus root rot Southern sclerotium root rot Phoma root rot Fusarium root rot Fusarium yellows Verticillium wilt Bacterial diseases Beet vascular necrosis and rot Bacterial leaf spot Crown gall Scab Yellow wilt Latent rosette Low sugar syndrome (Basses richesses) References 13 Pests A M Dewar, Broom's Barn Research Centre and D A Cooke Introduction Effects of pests on establishment, growth and yield Crop establishment Defoliation Foliar efficiency Root growth Disease vectors Distribution, biology, and pathogenicity of major pests Nematodes Slugs Arthropods Vertebrate pests Minimizing yield losses caused by pests Forecasting Crop rotation Other cultural control methods Resistant sugar beet cultivars Resistant catch crops Pesticides Beneficial organisms and biological control References 14 Weeds and weed control M J May, Broom's Barn Research Centre and R G Wilson, University of Nebraska Introduction Weeds Distribution and agricultural importance Biology of major weeds Effect of weeds on wildlife Weed competition and the effect of time of removal Weed control Physical methods Chemical methods Biological control Weed control outside the sugar beet crop In the rotation In fallow lay-by situations Herbicide resistance Crop varieties Weeds Crop injury from herbicides References 15 Storage L G Campbell, and K L Klotz, USDA Introduction Respiration Carbohydrate impurity formation Invert sugars Raffinose Polysaccharide gums Kestoses Storage rots Crop management and growing conditions Reducing mechanical damage Storage pile management References 16 Root quality and processing J V Dutton, Sugar Industry and Biotechnology Consultancy and A W M Huijbregts, IRS Introduction Historical overview of beet technical quality Concepts of good beet quality Quality parameters Sugar content Major non-sugars Reducing sugars Betaine Raffinose Dextran and levan Enzymes Marc Physical properties Tare Factors influencing quality Introduction Climate Variety Fertilizer Other agronomic factors Harvesting and topping Storage Factory beet handling Evolution of beet quality Conclusions References 17 Co-products J I Harland, C K Jones, Wyoming Sugar Company and V C Hufford, Midwest Agri-Commodities Introduction Sugar beet roots Sugar beet tops Analysis and feeding value Feeding sugar beet tops Sugar beet pulp Characterization of sugar beet pulp Analysis and feeding values of sugar beet pulp Feeding sugar beet pulp Other uses of sugar beet pulp Sugar beet molasses Analysis and feeding value of sugar beet molasses Feeding levels of sugar beet molasses Other uses for sugar beet molasses Molassed sugar beet pulp (feed) Molassed pressed pulp Dried molassed sugar beet feed Beet vinasse Concluding remarks References Index
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