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About this book
About this book
A synthesis of knowledge on the fixation of nitrogen by systems involving plants, especially legumes, and micro-organisms. Such associations utilize nitrogen from the atmosphere to make amino acids and proteins, and are of primary importance in providing a large part of the nitrogen compounds needed to sustain life. This volume underlines, and in some respects quantifies, their importance in both natural and agricultural habitats. The text is divided into parts dealing with genetic aspects, legume inoculants, field assessment, the effect of the environment and with fixation in non-leguminous symbioses. The final chapter is devoted to more controversial areas.
Reissue of a book first published in 1976.
Preface; Part I. Genetical aspects and taxonomy: 1. Recent advances in the genetics of nitrogen fixation; 2. Genetic analysis of nitrogen fixation in Klebsiella pneumoniae; 3. Control of nitrogenase synthesis in Azotobacter vinelandii; 4. Effects of some mutations on symbiotic properties of Rhizobium; 5. Transduction of effectiveness in Rhizobium meliloti; 6. Genetic transformation in Rhizobium japonicum; 7. Plasmid control of effectiveness in Rhizobium: transfer of nitrogen-fixing genes on a plasmid from Rhizobium trifolii to Klebsiella aerogenes; 8. The demonstration of conjugation in Rhizobium leguminosarum; 9. Identification and classification of root nodule bacteria; 10. The nodulation profile of the genus Cassia; Part II. Quality of Legume Inoculants: 11. The production of high quality inoculants and their contribution to legume yield; 12. Principles of Rhizobium strain selection; 13. Carriers of rhizobia and the effects of prior treatment on the survival of rhizobia; 14. A method of making a pure-culture, peat-type, legume inoculant, using a substitute for peat; 15. Methods of inoculating seeds and their effect on survival of rhizobia; 16. Some studies on the necessity of legume inoculation in Serbia (Yugoslavia); 17. Agar and peat inoculation efficiency in Bulgaria; 18. Yield responses of soybean, chickpea, pea and lentil to inoculation with legume inoculants; Part III. Field Experiments on Nitrogen Fixation by Nodulated Legumes: 19. IBP field experiments on nitrogen fixation by nodulated legumes; 20. Influence of inoculation, nitrogen fertilizers and photosynthetic source-sink manipulations on field-grown soybeans; 21. Field response of legumes in India to inoculation and fertiliser applications; 22. Effect of inoculation and fertiliser application on the growth of soybeans in Rumania; 23. Inoculation and nitrogen fertiliser experiments on soybeans in Cuba; 24. Field and greenhouse experiments on the response of legumes in Egypt to inoculation and fertilisers; 25. Application of the acetylene reduction technique to the study of nitrogen fixation by white clover in the field; Part IV. Legume Nitrogen Fixation and the Environment: 26. Symbiotic specialisation in pea plants: some environmental effects on nodulation and nitrogen fixation; 27. Physiology of the reaction of nodulated legumes to environment; 28. Symbiosis in tropical grain legumes: some effects of temperature and the composition of the rooting medium; 29. Recovery and compensation by nodulated legumes to environmental stress; 30. Nitrogen fixation by legumes subjected to water and light stresses; 31. Photosynthate as a major factor limiting nitrogen fixation by field-grown legumes with emphasis on soybeans; Part V. Nitrogen-fixing Symbioses in Non-Leguminous Plants: Preface; 32. The results of the IBP survey of root-nodule formation in non-leguminous angiosperms; 33. Symbiotic interactions in non-leguminous root nodules; 34. Ultrastructural studies of non-leguminous root-nodules; 35. Nitrogen fixation in root nodules of alder and pea in relation to the supply of photosynthetic assimilates; 36. The formation and nitrogen-fixing activity of the root nodules of Alnus glutinosa under field conditions; 37. Endophye adaption in Gunnera-Nostoc symbiosis; 38. Nitrogen fixation in some natural ecosystems in Indonesia; 39. Bacterial leaf symbiosis and nitrogen fixation; 40. A discussion of the results of cross-inoculation trials between Alnus glutinosa and Myrica gale; 41. The possibility of extending the capacity for nitrogen fixation to other plant species. A summary of proceedings at an open session held during the Edinburgh meeting; Index.