This is an edited volume drawing on the last sixty years of underwater cave research, the vast majority of which has never been published previously. Underwater caves are foreboding places, but they hold great potential for archaeology due to the excellent preservation of organic artifacts found in caves. Chapters are authored by the principle researchers responsible for the development of this emerging sub-field. The volume's scope is international and spans the Paleolithic through the modern era. It will interest many archaeologists as it touches on human origins, sea level and climate change, ritual and religion, and subsistence in many different cultures. Fields outside archaeology, such as geology and paleo-environmental studies, will find aspects relevant to their research. With authors who have published popular books such as Dan Lenihan, Jean Clottes, and Nic Flemming, The Archaeology of Underwater Caves will interest divers and other members of the public as well.