Afghanistan is one of the least studied countries in the Palaearctic region for its Lepidoptera. Large endemism makes this country particularly attractive to taxonomists and researchers, but collecting of entomological material, and butterflies in particular, has always been very restricted because of military and political reasons. Afghanistan is a mountainous country (about 80% of its territory) with the highest altitudes in the eastern part of country (the highest peak is Noshaq, 7492 m). There are the famous Hindukush mountains with the highest endemism in the Palaearctic region. The Afghanistan book includes 348 species, the second number after Pakistan published in the series The Butterflies of Palaearctic Asia. The work contains description of two new subspecies. During preparation the first author visited the collections of museums and private collections for study and photography. Special attention was given to the examination of types. Almost all type specimens of butterflies described from Afghanistan were studied, photographed and illustrated on colour plates. The Butterflies of Afghanistan will be useful for all who are interested not only in Palaearctic but also Oriental fauna.