About this book
Although chemical pesticides safeguard crops and improve farm productivity, they are increasingly feared for their potentially dangerous residues and their effects on ecosystems. "The Future Role of Pesticides" explores the role of chemical pesticides in the decade ahead and identifies the most promising opportunities for increasing the benefits and reducing the risks of pesticide use. The committee recommends R&D, program, and policy initiatives for federal agriculture authorities and other stakeholders in the public and private sectors. This book presents clear overviews of key factors in chemical pesticide use, including: advances in genetic engineering not only of pest-resistant crops but also of pests themselves; problems in pesticide use - concerns about the health of agricultural workers, the ability of pests to develop resistance, issues of public perception, and more; and impending shifts in agriculture - globalization of the economy, biological "invasions" of organisms, rising sensitivity toward cross-border environmental issues, and other trends. With a model and working examples, this book offers guidance on how to assess various pest control strategies available to today's agriculturist.
Executive Summary; Public-Sector Role in Research; Public-Sector Role in Implementation; Public-Sector Role in Education; Coda; History and Context; Definition of Pesticide; History of Pest Control; Goals of Agriculture; References; Benefits, Costs, and Contemporary Use Patterns; Benefits of Pesticides; Contemporary Pesticide Use on US Crops; Pesticide-Related Productivity in US Agriculture; Partial-Budget Models; Combined Budget-Market Models; Econometric Models; Quality, Storage, and Risk; Product Quality; Storage; Risk; Current Problems Associated with Pesticides; Resistance to Pesticides; Human Health Impacts; Occupational Effects and Risks: an Overview; manufacturing Risks; Packaging, Distribution, and Application Risks; Trends in Worker Safety Risk; Special Focus: Health Risks of Farm Workers and EPA Worker Protection Standards; Food Residues; Soil, Air, and Water Exposures; Ecological Problems: Impacts on Non-Target Organisms; Public Perception of Pesticides; References; Economic and Regulatory Changes and the Future of Pest Management; Economic and Institutional Developments and Their Impacts on Pest Control; Globalization of World Food Markets; Industrialization of Agriculture and Food Processing; Decentralization and Privatization; Privatization of Extension Services and Consulting; Phaseout of Commodity Programs; Devolution; Emergence of the Knowledge Economy; The Organic-Food Market; Market Size; USDA National Organic Standards Program; Eco-Labelling; New Zealand; United States; Innovative Farming Systems to Reduce Pesticide Use; Biointegral Orchard Systems and Biointegral Farming Systems; Pesticide Environmental Stewardship Program; Regulatory Changes; Environmental Regulation; Food Quality Protection Act; Decreasing Worker Exposure to Pesticides; The 1992 EPA Worker Protection Standards; Additional Means of Decreasing Worker Exposure to Pesticides; Legislated Reductions in Pesticide Use; References; Technological and Biological Changes and the Future of Pest Management; Global Pesticide Market Trends; Chemical-Pesticide Markets; Biopesticide Market; The Industry; Agricultural-Chemical Companies; Biopesticide Companies; The Use of Microbial Pesticides in Integrated Pest; Management (IPM) Systems; Bacillus thuringiensis; Baculoviruses; Entomopathogenic Fungi; Microbial and Natural-Product Fungicides; Hypovirulence; Transgenic Crops; Genetic Engineering of Pests; Targets of Chemical Pesticides; Combinatorial Chemistry; Development and Commercialization of New Chemicals; Application Technology; Precision Agriculture; Remote Sensing and Pest Management; Increasing Knowledge of Pest Ecology; Decision-Support Systems for Pest Management; Ecological Changes Affecting Agriculture; Carbon Dioxide and Global Warming; Increased Ultraviolet-B Radiation; Increased Frequency of Biological Invasions; Loss of Biodiversity; Evolutionary Changes in Pests; References; evaluation Of Pest-Control Strategies; Pesticide Use in Managed and Natural Ecosystems; Perennial Cropping Systems; Annual Cropping Systems; Stored-Products Systems; Animal-Production Systems; Urban Pest-Management Systems; Wildland Systems; Deciding Among Alternative Pest-Management Strategies in Determining the Utility of Chemical Products; Methods for Assessing Pest Management Strategies; Producers' Surplus; Pest-control Suppliers' Surplus (SS); Users' Surplus (US); Consumers' Surplus (CS); Environmental and Health Costs (EHC); Environmental Costs and Benefits (ECB); Nontarget Species Costs (NTC); Damage to Property and Resources (DRC); Environmental Costs and Benefits of Resource Use (ECBR); Government Net Costs (GNC); Evaluation; Model For Design and Evaluation of Pest-Management; Strategies on the Farm Scale; Assessment with Model; Identifying Research Needs; References; Conclusions and Recommendations; Tradeoffs in Pesticide Decision-Making; Government Support of Research and Development; Funding of New Ventures in Agricultural Biotechnology; and Biopesticides; Education and Information; Coda; References; Appendixes; A Selected National Research Council Publications about Pesticides; B Workshop Agendas; C About the Authors; Index; Tables, Figures, and Boxes; Tables; 1-1 EPA Regulatory Actions and Special Review Status of Selected Pesticides Used in Field-Crops Production, 1972y June 1995; 1-2 USDA Agricultural Research Service Funding of Chemical-Pesticide Research, 1999; 1-3 National Science Foundation Award Data Relevant to Pesticide Research; 2-1 Pesticide Use in US Row Crops, Fruits, and Vegetables; 2-2 Pounds of Pesticide Active Ingredient per Planted Acre in Major US Crops, 1990-1997; 2-3 Acreage and Amounts of Pesticides Applied to Major US Crops, 1997; 3-1 Application Technologies with Potential to Reduce Pesticide Risks; 4-1 Global Chemical Pesticide Market (1997 Sales); 4-2 US Chemical Pesticide Market by Category (1997 Sales); 4-3 Global Biopesticide Market (in millions of dollars); 4-4 Comparison of Technologies Pursued by the Pesticide Industry; 4-5 Company Pesticide Programs; 4-6 Sales of Transgenic Crops and Chemical Pesticides, 1995-1997; 4-7 Reduced-Risk Pesticides Registered with US EPA since 1994; 4-8 Number of Field Tests of Genetically Engineered Crops Containing Single or Multiple Genes; 4-9 Number of Papers Published in 1996 that Report on Biologically Active Natural Substances; 5-1 Pest Management Practices for Major Field Crops in Major Producing States, 1990-1997; 5-2 Fruit and Vegetable Acreage Treated with Pesticides, Major Producing States, 1992-1997; Figures; 1-1 Relationship between FIFRA-Approved Insecticides and FDA NADA-Approved Pesticides Used on Companion Animals and Livestock; 2-1 Index of Farm Productivity in the United States, 1948-1996; 2-2 Total Pesticides Application on Major US Crops, 1964-1997; 2-3 Real Pesticide Expenditures in the United States, 1979-1997; 2-4 Registration of Safer Chemicals; 4-1 Pesticide Sales of Top Ten Agrochemical Companies, 1997; 4-2 Cost to Develop and Time to Market of Various Products; 4-3 Agricultural-Environmental Biotechnology Modifications 1987-1998; 5-1 Equilibrium in Output Market When Supply Shifts as a Result of Technological Change; 5-2 Equilibrium in Output Market with Change in Product Quality Boxes; 1-1 Biopesticide Categories; 2-1 Fumigants; 3-1 International Organic Food Market; 4-1 Microbial Fungicides; 5-1 Assessing Integrated Weed Management from Biological Time Constraints and Their Impact on Weed Control and Crop Yield
Committee on the Future Role of Pesticides in US Agriculture, Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources, Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology, National Research Council