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The morphologically variable family Parmulariaceae (Fungi, Ascomycota, Dothideomycetes) is widespread in the tropics. The biological relationship between fungus and plant has not been studied in detail, but most species have features indicating biotrophic parasitism, where the fungus derives nutrition from the host without deleterious effects.
Few studies have been done in the last 30 years. The family now includes 34 accepted genera, with 24 further synonyms, and more than 100 species. The study was organized using a suite of computer databases, focusing on nomenclatural, geographical (floristic) and bibliographic information. More than 1,000 scientific names were considered, and more than 1,100 records of individual observations of these fungi have been gathered. All genera are fully redescribed and illustrated with drawings and microphotographs. A new key for identification of genera was constructed, and a complete nomenclatural checklist of the family is presented.