The leopard (Panthera pardus fusca, Meyer) is one of the least studied large cats of India distributed across India in a variety of habitats. It co-exists with lions in Gir National Park & Sanctuary in fairly high densities in the entire Gir Landscape covering an area of approximately 20,000 km2. The Department of Wildlife Sciences, Aligarh Muslim University in collaboration with the Gujarat State Forest Department initiated a pioneering research project on the ecology of the leopard in Gir in 2002, led by Prof. Jamal A. Khan. The SERC, Department of Science & Technology, Government of India funded this pioneering research program on the leopard which later evolved into a long-term study and Gir PA has the unique distinction of supporting such a long-term study on large carnivores in India. Over the last 16 years, a large body of data on leopards, lions and associated prey species has accumulated through the efforts of different researchers and forest officers which now has been synthesized in this book from the ecosystem's perspective. The book provides valuable information on various aspects of the ecology of the leopard in the Gir landscape and understanding gained from this long-term study will provide the basis for scientific management and conservation of leopard in the Gir landscape, especially in terms of its co-existence with lions in a human-dominated landscape where local people have played a crucial role in the protection of both charismatic cats.