Humankind benefits from a multitude of resources and processes that are supplied by ecosystems, and collectively these benefits are known as ecosystem services. Interest in this topic has grown exponentially over the last decade, as biologists and economists have tried to quantify these benefits to justify management interventions. Yet, as The Justices and Injustices of Ecosystem Services demonstrates, the implications for justice and injustice have rarely been explored and works on environmental justice are only now addressing the importance of ecosystem services.
The authors establish important new middle ground in arguments between conservationists and critics of market-based interventions such as Payment for Ecosystem Services. Neither can environmental management be separated from justice concerns, as some conservationists like to believe, nor is it in fundamental opposition to justice, as critics like to put it. The Justices and Injustices of Ecosystem Services develops this novel interpretation of justice in environmental management through analyses of prominent governance interventions and the conceptual underpinnings of the ecosystem services framework. Key examples described are revenue-sharing around protected areas and REDD+ for forest ecosystems.
The analyses demonstrate that interventions create opportunities for enhancing social justice, yet also reveal critical design features that cause ostensibly technical interventions to generate injustices.
1. Introduction: Linking Ecosystem Services with Environmental Justice
Part 1: Ecosystem Services-based Governance Interventions
2. Justice Implications of Conditionality in Payments for Ecosystem Services: a Case Study from Uganda
3. REDD+: Justice Effects of Technical Design
4. Just Conservation? On the Fairness of Sharing Benefits
Adrian Martin, Anne Akol and Jon Phillips
5. Basin Justice: Using Social Justice to address Gaps in River Basin Management
Mark Zeitoun and Karis McLaughlin
Part 2: The Ecosystem Services Framework
6. Environmentalisms, Justices and the Limits of Ecosystem Services Frameworks
7. Health, Environment and the Ecosystem Services Framework: A Justice Critique
8. A Justice Critique of Environmental Valuation for Ecosystem Governance
Eneko Garmendia and Unai Pascual
9. The Justices and Injustices of Ecosystem Services
Thomas Sikor, Janet Fisher, Roger Few, Adrian Martin and Mark Zeitoun
Thomas Sikor is Professor of Environment and Development at the University of East Anglia, UK.