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The aim of the study was to demonstrate the impact of multidirectional environmental factors (natural and anthropogenic) on the distribution and structure of the parasite assemblage of roach (Rutilus rutilus L.) along the Oder River, Central Europe. The analyzed factors were divided into two groups. Environmental factors include: (1) the nature of the river, (2) the level of industrialization of the area by associated tissues, (3) the presence or absence of artificial partitions in the riverbed, (4) the presence or absence of fish farms, (5) the wealth of water and bird sanctuaries and wetlands in the vicinity of the river, and (5) the rate of the current. Among the physico-chemical parameters characterizing the group we distinguished: (1) physical and thermal water, (2) the concentration of oxygen and organic pollutants (3) salinity, (4) acidification, and (5) nutrient conditions. At seven stations located along the whole Oder, measuring 854 km, we caught a total of 451 roach, which gave a full cross-section of the roach parasite community.