The floristic studies carried out during the 19th and 20th centuries in the Retezat Massif identified 1,152 plant species and 104 subspecies within the Cormobionta sub-regnum. Of these, about 12% are endemic Carpathian and Dacian-Balkan taxa that induce a regional specificity to the hosting communities. The phytocoenological research led to the description of 67 plant associations, grouped in 28 alliances, 19 orders and 13 vegetation classes. These classes are Asplenietea trichomanis, Thlaspietea rotundifolii, Salicetea herbaceae, Montio-Cardaminetea, Scheuchzerio-Caricetea fuscae, Oxycocco-Sphagnetea, Molinio-Arrhenatheretea, Caricetea curvulae, Loisleurio-Vaccinietea, Elyno-Seslerietea, Mulgedio-Aconitetea, Carpino-Fagetea and Vaccinio-Piceetea. The following plant associations herein described are new syntaxa: Phyteumo confusi-Junicetum trifidi, Salici kitaibelianae-Dryadetum octopetalae and Aconito taurici-Rumicetum alpine. For the protection of some rare plant species and vulnerable plant associations, two natural reserves are proposed to be created within the “Limestone Retezat” area.