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About this book
About this book
Containing articles written by 17 scientists from 10 countries, this book describes different aspects of analytical chemistry and the environmental checmistry of trace elements. It also highlights areas where collaboration between biochemists, soil scientists, analytical chemists and plant physiologists would be most productive.
Chapter 1: Multi-element analysis of plant and soil samples Introduction; Formulating the question; The steps of the analysis and associated errors; Trace element determination; Choosing the analytical method; Quality control; Concluding comments Chapter 2: Exploratory multivariate data analysis of soil and plant multi-element data Introduction; Statistics and chemometrics; Strategy; Definition of a project; Description of a project; Conclusion Chapter 3: Processes and factors regulating the behaviour and uptake of trace elements in the rhizosphere Introduction; The rhizosphere; Geochemical forms of trace elements in the rhizosphere; Processes affecting the behaviour of trace elements in the rhizosphere; Factors affecting the uptake of trace elements in the rhizosphere; Conclusions Chapter 4: Metal and arsenic bioavailability and uptake by hyperaccumulator plants Introduction; Phytoavailability of trace metals in soils; Phytoavailability of arsenic in soils; Metal and arsenic uptake by hyperaccumulator plants; Conclusions Chapter 5: Copper Introduction; Bioavailability of soil copper; Plant copper uptake; Copper transport within the plant; Copper toxicity in plants; Copper tolerance; Copper indicators and accumulators; Soil copper contamination from fungicides; Remediation of Cu-contaminated soils; Conclusions Chapter 6: Arsenic in plants, soils and foodstuffs Introduction; Arsenic in the earth's crust; Arsenic in plants; Conclusions Chapter 7 Cadmium Introduction; Cd and the soil; Cd and bacteria; Cd and mycorrhizal symbiosis; Plant uptake of Cd; Trophic transfer of Cd; Remediation of Cd contaminated soils; Conclusion Chapter 8: Phytoremediation of lead Introduction; Lead transport and accumulation in Sesbania; Transport pathway and mechanism; Improving plants for efficient phytoremediation Chapter 9: Scandium Introduction; Analytical problems of scandium determination; Scandium in soil; Scandium and micro-organisms; Scandium in plants; Relationships of scandium and other elements in plants and soil; Toxicity of scandium; Conclusions Chapter 10: Fractionation and bioavailability of rare earth elements in soils Introduction; Adsorption and desorption of REEs by and from soils; Bioavailability of REEs in soils to plants; Subcellular location, sequestration and transport of REEs; Conclusions Chapter 11: Biogeochemistry of gold: accepted theories and new opportunities Introduction; Geochemistry of gold; Plants as indicators of mineralisation: geobotany and biogeochemistry; Gold in microbes and animals; Phytoextraction; Geochemical explanation for induced solubility and uptake; Studies on the form and location of gold stored inside a plant; Review and conclusions: the application of gold phytoextraction Chapter 12: Thorium Introduction; Thorium in soils; Thorium and micro-organisms; Thorium in lower plants; Thorium in higher plants; Toxicity of thorium; Accumulation of thorium in plants and possible application of the effect for remediation of contaminated soils and wastes; Conclusions