Traditional Goat Management in Dhofar and the Omani Desert arises from a field study which investigated traditional goat management in Dhofar and the Omani desert. This publication considers goat raising as a key means of survival in an arid environment which , with the passage of time, has caused complex managerial strategies and practices to evolve. Traditional Goat Management in Dhofar and the Omani Desert's importance stems from the fact that archeological evidence falls short of fully explaining agricultural strategies and methods of ancient societies. On the other hand, traditional management comprises indigenous knowledge that has evolved down the ages. It reveals the adaptation of nomadic pastoralists to the environment, a process which has become an integral part of the cultural heritage of Oman. Moreover, development studies confirm that indigenous knowledge is an essential element in formulating policies and programs. Thus its documentation is a necessity.