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About this book
About this book
Noise and air pollution from motor vehicles have a major impact on the physical and mental well-being of urban residents worldwide. Although control measures have already been implemented in most developed countries, noise and air pollution have only recently become major problems in many developing countries, as rapid industrial growth, population increase and improved living standards have led to an increase in car ownership. If control measures are not implemented swiftly in developing countries, the effects on public health will be extremely serious. This book, which has been prepared by WHO in collaboration with the Ecotoxicology Service of the Department of Public Health in Geneva, discusses global trends in noise and air pollution from motor vehicles, their effects on public health, and the control measures available. Francois Cupelin, Service of Ecotoxicology (ECOTOX), Geneva, Switzerland (Chapter 7) Peter G. Flachsbart, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, Hawaii (Chapter 4) David T. Mage, United States Envir
MOTOR VEHICLES AND AIR POLLUTION. Current situation. Emissions of atmospheric pollutants. Future trends. References. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDIES OF THE HEALTH EFFECTS OF MOTOR VEHICLE AIR POLLUTION. Factors governing the toxic effects of pollutants. Nitrogen dioxide. Ozone and other photochemical oxidants. Sulphur dioxide, suspended particulate matter and acid aerosols. Carbon monoxide. Lead. Benzene. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Aldehydes. Conclusions. References. HEALTH EFFECTS FROM ROAD TRAFFIC NOISE. Environmental noise. Dose description. Hazard assessment and risk estimation. Annoyance. Conclusions. References.EXPOSURE TO EXHAUST AND EVAPORATIVE EMISSIONS FROM MOTOR VEHICLES. Exposure assessed using the direct approach. Exposure assessed using the indirect approach. Estimate of people exposed. Conclusions. References.MOTOR VEHICLE EMISSION CONTROL MEASURES. Controlling emissions per mile or per kilometre driven. Controlling vehicle miles travelled. A programme for reducing motor vehicle air pollution. Advances in vehicle pollution controls. Worldwide progress in lowering vehicle emissions. Future prospects for vehicle trends. References. CASE STUDIES FROM CITIES AROUND THE WORLD. Bangkok, Thailand. Singapore. Hong Kong. Republic of Korea. Taipei. Manila, the Philippines. Mexico City, Mexico. Los Angeles, USA. References. MOTOR VEHICLE POLLUTION CONTROL IN GENEVA. Motor traffic and public transport. The air pollution monitoring network. Trends in air quality in Geneva. The clean air implementation plan. Conclusions. References. Appendix 7.1 Estimation of emissions in Geneva. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS. Recommendations. Index.