Part I. Concepts of Coding and Efficiency: 1. The quantum efficiency of vision; 2. Coding efficiency and visual processing; 3. Statistical limits to image understanding; 4. The theory of comparative eye design; Part II. Efficiency of the Visual Pathway: 5. The design of compound eyes; 6. The light response of photoreceptors; 7. Is there more than meets the eye?; 8. Quantum efficiency and performance of retinal ganglion cells; 9. Neural interactions underlying direction-selectivity in the rabbit retina; 10. Detection and discrimination mechansims in the striate cortex of the Old-World monkey; Part III. Colour: 11. The two subsystems of colour vision and their roles in wavelength discrimination; 12. The effect of the angle of retinal incidence on the colour of monochromatic light; 13. Fourier interferometric stimulation (FIS): the method and its applications; 14. The chromatic coding of space; Part IV. Brightness, Adaptation and Contrast: 15. The role of photoreceptors in light-adaptation and dark-adaptation of the visual system; 16. Why do we see better in bright light?; 17. Mechanisms for coding luminance patterns: are they really linear?; 18. Feature detection in biological and artificial visual systems; Part V. Development of Vision: 19. On reformation of visual projection: cellular and molecular aspects; 20. Retinal pathways and the developmental basis of binocular vision; 21. Development of visual callosal connections; 22. Sensitive periods in visual development: insights gained from studies of recovery of visual function in cats following early monocular deprivation or cortical lesions; 23. The developmental course of cortical processing streams in the human infant; 24. Maturation of mechanisms for efficient spatial vision in primates; 25. The puzzle of amblyopia; Part VI. Depth and Texture: 26. A single, most-efficient algorithm for stereopsis?; 27. Binocular mechanisms in the normal and abnormal visual cortex of the cat; 28. Viewing geometry and gradients of horizontal disparity; 29. Texture discrimination: radiologist, machine and man; Part VII. Motion: 30. The motion pathways of the visual cortex; 31. The utilitarian theory of perception; Part VIII. From Image to Object: 32. A theory about the functional role and synaptic mechanism of visual after-effects; 33. Spatial and temporal summation in human vision; 34. The efficiency of pictorial noise suppression in image processing; 35. Algotecture of visual cortex; 36. The iconic bottleneck and the tenuous link between early visual processing and perception; 37. Pyramid algorithms for efficient vision; 38. High level visual decision efficiences; Index.