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This book presents the proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop "Wastewater Reuse - Risk Assessment, Decision-Making and Environmental Security", held in Istanbul in October, 2006. The papers survey the current state of water management in the world and especially the Middle East and Mediterranean regions, and address some of the most difficult international conflicts. Wastewater, a by-product of agricultural, industrial or domestic water use, can be an environmental hazard causing damage to soil and to water resources.
However, as demonstrated in many of the papers, it can also be a benefit if exploited correctly. Papers presented cover in great detail and depth the risk assessment, decision-making approaches and environmental security. Information about design, installation, management of wastewater treatment facilities, and use for saline water is provided by experts from the European Union, UNESCO, World Bank, United States, Canada and other contributing agencies dealing with the water scarcity situation. Forty five selected papers are included.
Session 1. Introduction and Risk Assessment Methods: Environmental Hazard Impact.- 1. Effects of Mining Activities on Water around the Canakkale Plain; A. Baba et al.- 2. Water Databanks IV, Mediterranean Region: Israel, Jordan, Palestine Authority; J.L.G. de Schutter.- 3. Wastewater Treatment and Reuse in Mediterranean Countries; C. Wendland et al.- 4. Risk/Cost Analysis of Sustainable Management of Wastewater for Irrigation: An Environmental Supply Chain approach; E. Levner.- 5. Direct Osmosis Technique: An Approach to Wastewater Reuse in Uzbekistan; Renat R. Khaydarov et al.- Session 2. Wastewater reuse - case studies.- 6. Wastewater Management, Treatment and Reuse in Israel; S. Arlosoroff.- 7. Soil Aquifer Treatment Areas in Tunisia: Jerba Island; M. Anane et al.- 8. Wastewater use in Jordan: an Introduction; Z.B. Nsheiwat.- 9. Municipal Water Reuse in Tucson, Arizona, USA; S.B. Megdal.- Session 3. Current Risk Management Practices -- Developed Countries.- 10. Dairy Wastewater Treatment with Effective Microorganisms and Duckweed for Pollutants and Pathogen Control; M. T. Rashid and J. West.- 11. Optimization of Treatment Train of Water Reuse Schemes in the Czech Republic; P. Hlavinek and J.Kubik.- Session 4. Risk Assessment/International Conflicts.- 12. Ranking of Ecological Risks Related to Wastewater Management; D. Alcaide Lopez De Pablo.- 13. Risk Assessment of Wastewater Contaminated with Radionuclides Using Arabidopsis Thaliana L. Plants; N.M.Rashydov et al.- 14. Multi Criteria Decision-making Tool for Optimal Water Resource Management; K. Atoyev.- Session 5. Risk Assessment Methods: Hazard Impact of Treatment Methods.- 15. Risk-based Decision Support of Water Resource Management Alternatives; P.D. West, T. Trainor.- 16. Assessment of Three Wastewater Treatment Plants in Turkey; O. Gundaz, C. Simsek.- 17. Pollution Potential of the Shallow Aquifers in Jordan; N. Al-Halasah, B.Y. Ammary.- 18. Oxidation Ponds for Wastewater Treatment in Egypt; H.I. Abdel-Shafy, M.A.M. Salem.- Session 6. Risk Assessment: Economic and Managerial Aspects.- 19. Combining Wastewater Irrigation with Desalination: a Multi-Disciplinary Approach; N. Haruvy.- 20. Wastewater Reuse, Risk Assessment, Decision-making - A Three Ended Narrative Subject; S. Meric, D. Fatta.- 21. . Guidelines for Irrigation Management of Saline Waters are Overly Conservative J. Letey.- 22. Pricing of Water and Effluent in a Sustainable Salt Regime; O. Goldfarb.- 23. Regional Planning of Wastewater Reuse for Agricultural Irrigation and River Rehabilitation; G. Axelrad, E. Feinerman.- Session 7. Risk Assessment/National Policy Making Interface.- 24. Sewerage Infrastructure: Fuzzy techniques to Manage Failure Risk; Y. Kleiner et al.- 25. . Guidelines for Good Practice of Wastewater Reuse for Irrigation in Portugal; M.H.F. Marecos do Monte.- 26. Farmers' Demand for Recycled Water in Cyprus: a Contingent Valuation; E. Birol et al.- 27. Evaluating the World Health Organization's 2006 Health Guidelines for Wastewater Reuse in Agriculture; H. Shuval.- Session 8. Current Risk Management Practices.- 28. New Standards for Treated Wastewater Reuse in Israel; Y. Inbar.- 29. Wastewater Reuse in Israel - Risk Assessment; Y. Dreizin.- 30. Life Cycle Assessment, a Decision-making Tool for Wastewater Treatment Facilities; M.T. Abmed.- 31. Radiation-Thermal Purification of Wastewater from Oil Pollution; I. Mustafayev et al.- 32. Analysis of Antibiotic Resistance Patterns of Fecal Enterococcus in Coastal Waters of Puerto Rico; N.J. Rodriguez, B.R. Zaidi.- 33. Effects of a Long-term Wastewater Irrigation on Chemical, Microbiological and Virological Status of Soil; Z. Filip, K. Demnerova.- 34. The Algorithm of Risk Assessment on Population Health; A.A.Bayramov.- 35. Thermal Treatment of Wastewater from Cheese Production; L.B. Giese et al.- 36. Environmental Aspects of Wastewater reuse; M.K. Zaidi.- 37. Wastewater Reuse in Israel and the West Bank; S. Shaihevet.- 38. Overview of Wastewater Management in Egypt; H.I. Abdel-Shafy, R.0. Aly.- Session 9. Panel: Decision Making and Risk Assessment- International Conflicts and Posters.- 39. Health Assessment of Wastewater Reuse for Agriculture in Jordan; M. Al-Alawi.- 40. Wastewater Risk Assessment of Polyester Computerized Cabins in Egypt; M.A. Amasha, T.M. Abou Ehnaaty.- 41. Removal of Uranium from Wastewater in Turkey; G.A. Aycik.- 42. Water Management and Sustainable Use of Wastewater in Turkey; M. Turkes, Z.Acar; 43.. Removal of Some Heavy Metals from Wastewater by Using New Membranes; A.Geleel et al.- 44. Wastewater Treatment and Reuse in Egypt; M.A. Geleel.-45. Wastewater Treatment and the Surface Water Protection - Sustainable Development Strategy in Lithuania; G. Ignatavicius.-