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About this book
About this book
The outcome of a collaborative programme of activity between UNEP and WHO, with inputs from WMO and UNESCO. This book is a companion volume to Water Quality Assessments edited by Deborah Chapman.
Introduction. Elements of a water quality monitoring programme. Monitoring for management. Monitoring and assessment. Water Quality. Characteristics of surface waters. Characteristics of groundwater. Natural processes affecting water quality. Water use and water quality deterioration. Water and human health. Source literature and further reading. Designing a monitoring programme. Purpose of monitoring. The need for information for management. Objectives of water quality monitoring. Preliminary surveys. Description of the monitoring area. Selecting sampling sites. Selecting sampling stations. Monitoring media and variables. Frequency and timing of sampling. Source literature and further reading. Resources for a monitoring programme. Laboratory facilities. Transport. Staffing. Human resources development and training. Communication. Inventory of sampling stations. Schedules for sampling expeditions. Source literature and further reading. Field work and sampling. Sample containers. Types of sample. Water samplers. Manual sampling procedures. Recording field observations. Sample preservation. Transportation and storage of samples. Reception of samples by the laboratory. Safety during field work. Source literature and further reading. Field testing methods. Temperature. Transparency. pH. Conductivity (or specfic conducture). Dissolved oxygen. Thermotolerant (faecal) coliforms. Quality assurance in the field. Source literature and further reading. Physical and shemical analyses. Preparation and use of chemical reagents. Akalinity. Aluminium. Biochemical oxygen demand. Chemical oxygen demand. Boron. Calcium. Chloride. Chlorophyll a. Fluoride. Iron. Magnesium. Manganese. Nitrogen, ammonia. Nitrogen, kjeldahl. Nitrogen, nitrate. Nitrogen, nitrite. Phosphorus. Potassium. Selenium. Reactive silica. Sodium. Sulphate. Total dissolved solids. Total suspended solids. Source literature and further reading. Advanced instrumental analysis. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). Gas chromatography. Flame photometry. Total, organic and inorganic carbon. Source literature and further reading. Analytical quality assurance. Quality assurance. Internal quality control. External quality control. Source literature and further reading. Microbilogical Analyses. Characteristics of indicator organisms. Selecting a bacteriological analytical technique. Multiple fermentation tube technique. Membrane filter technique. Quality assurance. Source literature and further reading. Biological monitoring. Selection of appropriate methods and organisms. Ecological methods. Measurement of chlrorphyll a. Physiological techniques. Controlled biotests. Contaminats in biological tissues. Site selection and sampling frequency. Quality assurance. Source literature and further reading. Hydrological measurements. Rivers. Lakes and reservoirs. Mass flux computation. Groundwater. Source liter