A wildlife fence is a barrier that prevents or guides the movement of animals from one area to another. This guide covers all types of fencing that may be used to control wildlife in farming, forestry, landscape management and along linear corridors, in particular along roadsides, but also others, such as, railways and canals. It provides theoretical guidance for designers and planners and practical guidance to managers and fence constructors and, in particular, for those who are involved in fencing roadsides. The need for wildlife fencing is explained together with the factors that should be considered when deciding whether fencing is necessary. General advice is given on the appropriate standard of fencing as well as the detailed fence type required to provide an effective barrier against the different wildlife species. Specific advice is given in relation to wildlife fencing along different types of road and, in particular, the implications for wildlife fencing alignment, design and maintenance. Comment is also provided on the retrospective fitting of wildlife fences onto existing boundary fences.
1 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 6; 2 GLOSSARY x; 3 INTRODUCTION; 4 ROADSIDE FENCING; 4.1 Responsibilities for roadside fencing; 4.2 Fencing for new roads; 4.3 Motorway boundary fencing; 4.4 Trunk and county highways boundary fencing; 4.5 Wildlife fencing on existing roads; 4.6 Environmental assessment for roadside fencing; 5 DEVELOPING A WILDLIFE FENCING STRATEGY; 5.1 Detailed design considerations; 5.2 Wildlife fencing design process: planning and implementing steps; 6 FENCING FUNDAMENTALS; 6.1 Support structures; 6.2 Barrier cladding material; 7 FENCE CONSTRUCTION; 7.1 End post assembly - post and wire fences; 7.2 Contour/turning posts; 7.3 Intermediate posts; 7.4 Line wires; 7.5 Barrier cladding material - post and rail and post and wire fences; 7.6 Gates and stiles; 7.7 Badger gate; 7.8 Water gates, grills and pipes; 8 FENCE SPECIFICATIONS; 8.1 Deer; 8.2 Rabbit; 8.3 Wild boar; 8.4 Badger; 8.5 Otter; 8.6 Amphibian and reptiles; 8.7 Birds - optional extras for; 8.8 Foxes; 8.9 Electric fences; 9 BARRIER EFFICACY; 9.1 Fence life; 9.2 Combining fence specifications; 9.3 The fence line; 9.4 Interface between fencing and other on-site structures; 10 MATERIALS; 10.1 Posts; 10.2 Woodwork; 10.3 Droppers; 10.4 Plain steel wire; 10.5 Barbed wire; 10.6 "Polywire"; 10.7 Mesh netting; 10.8 Woven wire mesh netting; 10.9 Welded wire mesh netting; 10.10 Hexagonal wire mesh netting; 10.11 Synthetic mesh netting; 10.12 High visibility plastic mesh netting; 10.13 Supporting line wires; 10.14 Fence fittings and fixtures; 10.15 Electric fence insulators, switches and earth rod; 11 FENCE INSTALLATION; 11.1 Pre-construction work; 11.2 Fence construction sequence of operations - Post and wire support structures; 11.3 Fence construction along roadsides - Post and rail support structures; 12 SAFETY; 13 MAINTENANCE AND MONITORING; 13.1 Fence maintenance; 13.2 Fence monitoring; 14 SOURCES OF INFORMATION.