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The Ratchet effect; the mechanical round; the chemical round; the genetic round; the tightening Ratchet; the problem of scale; interaction with technology; meat and dairy production; scale and forestry; irrigation and scale; scale and loss of species diversity; an alternative philosophy; working with nature; economic feasibility; conclusion; the bottoms-up approach; plant-plant interactions; negative interactions; positive interactions; intercropping in agriculture; mixed species forest plantations; management for facilitation and complementarity; interactions in the soil; functions of soil organisms; changes in the soil system following cultivation; how we compensate for the loss of nature's services; conclusion; pest and disease interactions; pests; disease; integrated pest management; economic analysis; environmental disturbance, and pests and disease; conclusion; interactions during succession; factors influencing succession; trends during succession; fighting succession; working with succession; conclusion; the top-down approach; an alternative; energy and power output; guiding principles for resource management; case studies of resource management; transition from sustainability to unsustainability; transition for unsustainability to sustainability; factors causing transitions.