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ZooKeys 613: The Middle Pleistocene Vertebrate Fauna from Khok Sung (Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand): Biochronological and Paleobiogeographical Implications

MonographJournal / Magazine

Series: ZooKeys Volume: 613

By: Kantapon Suraprasit(Author), Jean-Jacques Jaeger(Author), Yaowalak Chaimanee(Author), Olivier Chavasseau(Author), Chotima Yamee(Author), Pannipa Tian(Author), Somsak Panha(Author)

158 pages, colour photos, colour & b/w illustrations, tables

Pensoft Publishers

Paperback | Aug 2016 | #239284 | ISBN-13: 9789546428349
Availability: Usually dispatched within 1-2 weeks Details
NHBS Price: £45.50 $61/€52 approx

About this book

The Khok Sung sand pit in the northeastern province Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand, has yielded abundant and diverse Pleistocene fossils including large mammals and other vertebrates with excellent preservation. The authors mainly describe mammalian fossils from this locality. The Khok Sung mammalian fauna consists of several modern species present today in mainland Southeast Asia, some extirpated species (Crocuta crocuta ultima, Rhinoceros unicornis, Sus barbatus, and Axis axis), and an extinct proboscidean (Stegodon cf. orientalis). The Khok Sung mammalian assemblage includes similar species to those of other late Middle to early Late Pleistocene sites in Southeast Asia, especially Thum Wiman Nakin from northern Thailand, suggesting the age of late Middle Pleistocene. However, a younger palaeomagnetic age of about 120 ka (“Blake”) remains possible. With regards to the faunal comparisons and the geographical location of northeastern Thailand, Khok Sung constitutes a witness of the faunal exchanges from South China to Java via the Sino-Malayan migration route.


Contents

Material and methods   6
      Fossil collecting and material   6
      Dental terminology and taxonomic nomenclature   7
      Measurements   7
      Body mass estimation   8
      Faunal similarity measures and cluster analysis   11
Systematic paleontology   12
      Macaca sp.   12
      Cuon sp.    13
      Stegodon cf. orientalis Owen, 1870   16
      Elephas sp.   22
      Rhinoceros sondaicus Desmarest, 1822   25
      Rhinoceros unicornis Linnaeus, 1758   29
      Sus barbatus Müller, 1838   31
      Axis axis (Erxleben, 1777)   36
      Panolia eldii (M’Clelland, 1842)   46
      Rusa unicolor (Kerr, 1792)   49
      Bos sauveli Urbain, 1937   54
      Bos gaurus (Hamilton-Smith, 1827)   60
      Bubalus arnee (Kerr, 1792)   64
      Capricornis sumatraensis (Bechstein, 1799)   70
      Crocodylus cf. siamensis Schneider, 1801   73
      Python sp.    75
      Varanus sp.    76
      Faunal composition of Khok Sung vertebrate assemblage   77
      Individual species distribution patterns   80
      Stegodontids and elephantids   80
      Javan and Indian rhinoceroses   82
      Bearded pigs   83
      Chitals   85
      Eld’s and sambar deer   86
      Koupreys, gaurs, and wild water buffaloes   88
      Sumatran serows   91
      Faunal comparisons of the assemblage with other penecontemporaneous assemblages   91
Discussion   95
      Biochronology of Khok Sung fauna   95
      Evolutionary and biogeographic affinities of Khok Sung fauna   96
Acknowledgments   98
References    98
Appendices   112


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