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Biocontrol is among the most promising methods for a safe, environmentally benign and sustainable pest control. Microbial pesticides offer a great potential, and it is anticipated that they will become a substantial part of the use of all crop protection products. Their development and commercialization, however, has been difficult and with many failures.
In this book a rational and structured roadmap has been designed for the development and commercialization of microbial pest control products for the control of arthropod pests. The building blocks of the entire process are identified and essential aspects highlighted. Biopesticides based on entomopathogenic bacteria, fungi, viruses and nematodes are elaborately discussed.
1 General introduction and outline.- Introduction.- Insect pathogens as microbial control agents.- Aim of this book.- Outline of this book.- Appendix: Terminology and definitions.- 2 Selection of a microbial pest control agent .- Introduction.- Critical steps and factors in the selection process of a microbial pest control agent.- Selection criteria for a microbial pest control agent.- Conclusions and recommendations.- 3 Mass production and product development of a microbial pest control agent.- Introduction.- Process development.- Product development.- Production economics and final product costs.- Conclusions and recommendations.- 4 Quality control.- Introduction.- History of quality control in microbial pest control products.- Production quality control and process quality control.- Product quality control of microbial pest control products.- Critical aspects of product quality control with the various types of pathogens.- Registration and quality control.- Practical aspects of product quality control.- Conclusions and recommendations.- 5 Registration of microbial pest control agents and products and other related regulations.- Introduction.- Entomopathogenic nematodes and regulations.- Exotic organisms and microbial pesticides.- Safe handling of microorganisms.- Intellectual property rights.- Conclusions and recommendations.- 6 Implementation of a microbial pest control product in an integrated pest management programme.- Introduction .- Development of an application strategy.- Development of an integrated pest management strategy.- Resistance and microbial pest control products.- Practical aspects of side-effect testing.- Implementation of microbial pest control products and knowledge transfer .- Conclusions and recommendations.- 7 Critical factors in the successful commercialization of microbial pest control products.- Introduction.- The historical development of biopesticide companies and microbial pest control products.- Overview of current use of microbial pest control products.- Critical success and failure factors for a biopesticide company.- Successful and unsuccessful companies.- Factors that influence the decision to develop and commercialize microbial pesticides.- Is there a successful business model for a biopesticide company?.- Critical success and failure factors for a microbial pesticide.- Developmental costs and time of a microbial pest control product.- Distribution and sale strategies.- Conclusions and recommendations.- 8 Roadmap to success and future perspective.- Introduction.- Roadmap to a successful microbial pest control product.- Future perspective.- Concluding remarks.