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Academic & Professional Books  Organismal to Molecular Biology  Animals: Invertebrate Zoology

Atlas of Comparative Invertebrate Embryology, Volume 1: Porifera, Cnidaria, Ctenophora

By: Martin EL Scriba(Author)
136 pages, 3 colour photos; 67 b/w line drawings
Atlas of Comparative Invertebrate Embryology, Volume 1: Porifera, Cnidaria, Ctenophora
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  • Atlas of Comparative Invertebrate Embryology, Volume 1: Porifera, Cnidaria, Ctenophora ISBN: 9783899371840 Paperback Mar 2015 Usually dispatched within 5 days
Price: £44.99
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Atlas of Comparative Invertebrate Embryology, Volume 1: Porifera, Cnidaria, CtenophoraAtlas of Comparative Invertebrate Embryology, Volume 1: Porifera, Cnidaria, CtenophoraAtlas of Comparative Invertebrate Embryology, Volume 1: Porifera, Cnidaria, CtenophoraAtlas of Comparative Invertebrate Embryology, Volume 1: Porifera, Cnidaria, CtenophoraAtlas of Comparative Invertebrate Embryology, Volume 1: Porifera, Cnidaria, Ctenophora

About this book

The Atlas of Comparative Invertebrate Embryology has two aims. Firstly, it describes embryonic development or ontogeny of several species within a phylum. Secondly, by comparing the different ontogenies this collection supplies a basis for phylogenetic reflections about phylum-level relationships in lower Metazoa. Diversity of ontogenies, embryos and larvae can be an important source for well-founded phylogenetic theories. Like comparative morphology and anatomy, comparative embryology plays a central role for the analysis of evolution.

The Atlas of Comparative Invertebrate Embryology presents a wealth of embryonic and larval developmental processes to emphasize the great variety of ontogenies in the animal kingdom. Like the adult organisms, larvae are also of an enormous diversity owing to the varied requirements of their environment. Within a phylum, embryonic and larval development may be uniform to a large degree, but also deviations are known. In comparing the different ontogenies of an animal phylum, embryologists try to find out the common ancestor and to reconstruct the phylogeny of the group.

Establishing a phylogenetic system of the animal kingdom on the basis of comparative embryology requires a sound theory to integrate far reaching steps in evolution of the animal phyla. Two theories, which are founded in simple events that equally occur in many embryonic developmental courses of different phyla, are the Gastraea–theory of Haeckel (1874) and the Archicoelomata–theory of Masterman (1898). In the Atlas of Comparative Invertebrate Embryology, the phylogenetic system proposed by comparison of the different ontogenies is based on these two theories.

The atlas offers a broad view about the diversity of embryos and larvae and may be useful in looking for a suitable species of special interest. Naturally, an exhaustive description of all ontogenies of animals is impossible. Ontogenies of well known species and detailed research work of their embryos have been chosen. Besides this, embryological research work of some Metazoan phyla is incomplete. Our knowledge of the ontogeny of animals is mainly founded on the classical investigations between 1860 and 1960. In the Atlas of Comparative Invertebrate Embryology, in the chapters concerning phylogenetic interrelationships of phyla, results of studies on morphological or biochemical composition of structures of the adults and of modern gene sequence data may be included into discussion.


Preface 9
   Acknowledgement 10
Introduction 11
   Characteristics of comparative embryology 11
   Biological systematics 12
   Eggs and embryos 12
   Cleavage 12
   Blastula 12
   Gastrulation, second germ layer formation 12
   Mesoderm, third germ layer formation 13
   Organ differentiation 13
   Larvae 13
   Molecular biology and development 14
   Literature 15
Diploblastic Organisms – Animals with two germ layers 16
   Phylum Porifera 16
   Symplasma* – Class Hexactinellida 16
   Cellularia 17
   Calcarea 17
   Calcaronea 17
   Leucosolenia botryoides (ELLIS & SOLANDER) 17
   Sycon raphanus (O. SCHMIDT) 20
   Grantia compressa (FABRICIUS) 24
   Calcinea 26
   Ascandra minchini (BOROJEVIC) 26
   Clathrina falcata (HAECKEL) 28
   Clathrina coriacea (MONTAGU) 28
   Demospongiae 30
   Homoscleromorpha 30
   Oscarella lobularis (O. SCHMIDT) 30
   Tetractinomorpha 30
   Tethya aurantium (PALLAS) 30
   Polymastia robusta (BOWERBANK) 33
   Raspailia pumila (BOWERBANK) 34
   Ceractinomorpha 35
   Myxilla rosea (LIEBERKÜHN) 35
   Halisarca dujardini (JOHNSTON) 36
   Ephydatia fluviatilis (LINNÉ) 37
   Summary of the Ontogenesis in Porifera 40
   Cleavage, morula, coeloblastula, amphiblastula 40
   Reorganization process of germ layers, parenchymulae, gastrulation, metamorphosis 40
   Polarity of the sponge egg and rudiment of germ layers 41
   Comparison of ontogenies in Porifera 42
   Embryonic development in Porifera and evolutionary interpretation 43
   Phylogenetic Transition between Protozoans and Metazoans 44
   Comparative embryology 44
   Comparative morphology 44
   Morphogens 45
   Biochemistry of the extracellular matrix 45
   Literature 46
Phylum Cnidaria 49
   Class Anthozoa 49
   Hexacorallia 50
   Ceriantharia 50
   Cerianthus lloydii (GOSSE) 50
   Pachycerianthus multiplicatus (CALGREN) 50
   Actinaria 52
   Metridium senile var. dianthus (ELLIS) 52
   Aiptasia mutabilis (GOSSE) 55
   Anthopleura xanthogrammica (BRANDT) 55
   Tealia crassicornis (MÜLLER) 56
   Madreporaria 56
   Favia fragum (ESPER) 56
   Platygyra sinensis (EHRENBERG) 57
   Zoantharia 58
   Protopalythoa spec. 58
   Octocorallia 60
   Alcyonaria 60
   Alcyonium digitatum (LINNÉ) 60
   Sympodium coralloides (MILNE EDWARDS) 62
   Pennatularia 62
   Ptilosarcus guerneyi (GRAY) 62
   Helioporida 64
   Heliopora coerula (PALLAS) 64
   Summary of Ontogenesis in Anthozoa 65
   Cleavage and gastrulation 65
   Anthozoan larvae 65
   Embryonic development in Anthozoa and evolutionary interpretation 66
   Comparative embryology 66
   Nucleotide sequence data 67
   Structure of the mitochondrial genome 67
   Literature 67
   Class Scyphozoa 69
   Coronata 71
   Linuche unguiculata (SCHWARTZ) 71
   Semaeostomea 71
   Chrysaora hysoscella (LINNÈ) 71
   Cyanea capillata (LINNÈ) 72
   Aurelia aurita (LAMARCK) 73
   Rhizostomea 75
   Cassiopea andromeda (FORSKAL) 75
   Cotylorhiza tuberculata (MACRI) 76
   Mastigias papua (LINNÉ) 78
   Stauromedusida 78
   Haliclystus octoradiatus (LAMARCK) 80
   Class Cubozoa 80
   Tripedalia cystophora (CONANT) 80
   Carybdea rastoni (HAACKE) 82
   Summary of Ontogenesis in Scyphozoa and Cubozoa 82
   Cleavage and gastrulation 82
   Scyphozoan and cubozoan larvae 82
   Embryonic development in Scyphozoa and Cubozoa and evolutionary interpretation 82
   Comparative embryology 82
   Comparative morphology 83
   Nucleotide sequence data 83
   Literature 83
   Class Hydrozoa 84
   Hydroidea 84
   Thecata – Leptomedusae 84
   Aequorea aequorea (PÉRON & LESUEUR) 84
   Eucheilota maculata (HARTLAUB) 86
   Clytia gregaria (AGASSIZ) 86
   Phialidium hemisphaericum (LINNÈ) 87
   Obelia longissima (PALLAS) and Obelia geniculata (LINNÉ) 88
   Athecata – Anthomedusae 90
   Clava multicornis (O. F. MÜLLER) 90
   Cordylophora caspia (PALLAS) 93
   Podocoryne carnea (SARS) 93
   Hydractinia echinata (FLEMING) 96
   Eudendrium armatum (TICHOMIROV) 96
   Coryne muscoides (LINNÉ) 98
   Sarsia eximia (ALLMAN) 100
   Tubularia mesembryanthemum (ALLMAN) 100
   Tubularia crocea (AGASSIZ) 100
   Hydrina 103
   Hydra grisea (LINNÉ) 103
   Hydra carnea (AGASSIZ) 103
   Hydra vulgaris (PALLAS) 104
   Lymnohydrina 104
   Gonionemus vertens (AGASSIZ) 104
   Trachylida 104
   Geryonia fungiformis (METSCHNIKOFF) 104
   Summary of Ontogenesis in Hydrozoa 106
   Cleavage and gastrulation 106
   Endoderm 107
   Hydrozoan larvae 107
   Composition of the extracellular matrix (mesogloea) 107
   Embryonic development in Hydrozoa and evolutionary interpretation 107
   Literature 108
   Class level relationships in the phylum Cnidaria 110
   Comparative embryology 110
   Comparative morphology 110
   Structure of the mitochondrial genome 111
   Phylogeny of Cnidaria 111
   Literature 111
Phylum Ctenophora 113
   Tentaculifera 114
   Cydippida 114
   Pleurobrachia pileus (O. F. MÜLLER) 114
   Callianira bialata (DELLE CHIAJE) 114
   Lobata 115
   Mnemiopsis leidyi (AGASSIZ) 115
   Ocyropsis maculata (RANG) and Ocyropsis crystallina (RANG) 119
   Atentaculata 120
   Beroida 120
   Beroe ovata (CHAMISSO and EYSENHARDT) 120
   Summary of the Ontogenesis in Ctenophora 123
   Cleavage and gastrulation 123
   Embryonic development in Ctenophora and evolutionary interpretation 123
   Mesogloea in Ctenophora 123
   Comparative embryology 123
   Comparative morphology 124
   Nucleotide sequence data 124
   Literature 124
Phylum Placozoa 126
   Literature 126
   Ancestral mode of ontogeny in diploblastic animals 127
   Cleavage pattern 127
   Gastrulation 127
   Second germ layer hypothesis 127
   The bilaterogastraea-theory 130
   Blastopore formation 130
   Phylum-level relationships, molecular biology and traditional homology 131
   Protostomia versus Deuterostomia 131
   Comparative embryology 131
   Molecular biology 131
   Developmental genetics and “homology” 132
   Literature 132
Glossary 135

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By: Martin EL Scriba(Author)
136 pages, 3 colour photos; 67 b/w line drawings
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