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Atlas of Comparative Invertebrate Embryology, Volume 3: Lophophorata (Phoronida, Brachiopoda, Bryozoa)

Series: Atlas of Comparative Invertebrate Embryology Volume: 3

By: Martin EL Scriba(Author)

167 pages, 3 colour photos, 95 b/w illustrations

Verlag Friedrich Pfeil

Paperback | Mar 2015 | #222691 | ISBN-13: 9783899371864
Availability: Usually dispatched within 6 days Details
NHBS Price: £42.50 $56/€48 approx

About this book

The Atlas of Comparative Invertebrate Embryology has two aims. Firstly, it describes embryonic development or ontogeny of several species within a phylum. Secondly, by comparing the different ontogenies this collection supplies a basis for phylogenetic reflections about phylum-level relationships in lower Metazoa. Diversity of ontogenies, embryos and larvae can be an important source for well-founded phylogenetic theories. Like comparative morphology and anatomy, comparative embryology plays a central role for the analysis of evolution.

The Atlas of Comparative Invertebrate Embryology presents a wealth of embryonic and larval developmental processes to emphasize the great variety of ontogenies in the animal kingdom. Like the adult organisms, larvae are also of an enormous diversity owing to the varied requirements of their environment. Within a phylum, embryonic and larval development may be uniform to a large degree, but also deviations are known. In comparing the different ontogenies of an animal phylum, embryologists try to find out the common ancestor and to reconstruct the phylogeny of the group.

Establishing a phylogenetic system of the animal kingdom on the basis of comparative embryology requires a sound theory to integrate far reaching steps in evolution of the animal phyla. Two theories, which are founded in simple events that equally occur in many embryonic developmental courses of different phyla, are the Gastraea–theory of Haeckel (1874) and the Archicoelomata–theory of Masterman (1898). In the Atlas of Comparative Invertebrate Embryology, the phylogenetic system proposed by comparison of the different ontogenies is based on these two theories.

The atlas offers a broad view about the diversity of embryos and larvae and may be useful in looking for a suitable species of special interest. Naturally, an exhaustive description of all ontogenies of animals is impossible. Ontogenies of well known species and detailed research work of their embryos have been chosen. Besides this, embryological research work of some Metazoan phyla is incomplete. Our knowledge of the ontogeny of animals is mainly founded on the classical investigations between 1860 and 1960. In the Atlas of Comparative Invertebrate Embryology, in the chapters concerning phylogenetic interrelationships of phyla, results of studies on morphological or biochemical composition of structures of the adults and of modern gene sequence data may be included into discussion.


Phylum Lophophorata 8
Class Phoronida 8
   Phoronis buskii (McINTOSH) 9
   Phoronis muelleri (de SELYS-LONGCHAMPS) 15
   Phoronis psammophila (CORI) 19
   Phoronis vancouverensis (PIXELL) 23
   Phoronis ovalis (S. WRIGHT) 25
   Phoronopsis harmeri (PIXELL) 27
   Summary of Embryonic Development in Phoronida 30
   Fertilization, cleavage and gastrulation 30
   Mesoderm formation in larva 30
   Larva 31
   Metamorphosis 32
   Embryonic development in Phoronida 32
   Class- and phylum-level relationships of Phoronida 33
   Prosoma 33
   Mesosoma 34
   Metasoma 34
   Nervous system of the actinotrocha 35
   Ciliary bands 35
   Literature 36
Class Brachiopoda 38
   Ecardines 39
   Lingula unguis (LINNÉ) 39
   Glottidia pyramidata (STIMPSON) 41
   Discinisca strigata (BRODERIP) 44
   Discinisca atlantica (KING) 46
   Crania anomala (O. F. MÜLLER) 48
   Testicardines 52
   Notosaria nigrcans (SOWERBY) 52
   Terebratulina septentrionalis (COUTHOUY) 55
   Terebratulina retusa (LINNÉ) 60
   Argyrotheca cordata (RISSO) 63
   Waltonia inconspicua (SOWERBY) 65
   Pumilus antiquatus (ATKINS) 68
   Terebratalia transversa (SOWERBY) 70
   Summary of Embryonic Development in Brachiopoda 73
   Embryonic development 73
   Larval development in Testicardines 73
   Juvenile development in Ecardines: Lingula, Glottidia, and Discinisca 74
   Larval development in Ecardines: Crania 75
   Adult morphology, embryonic and larval development in Brachiopoda and evolutionary interpretation 75
   Morphology 75
   Embryology 76
   Larvae and juveniles 76
   Class and phylum level relationship of Brachiopoda 77
   Mode of mesoderm formation 77
   Protocoel and prosoma 77
   Apical ganglion 77
   Mesocoel and lophophore 78
   Metacoel and metasoma 78
   Literature 79
Class Bryozoa 82
   Gymnolaemata 83
   Ctenostomata – species with planktotrophic shelled cyphonautes larvae 83
   Alcyonidium albidum (ALDER) 83
   Hypophorella expansa (EHLERS) 85
   Farrella repens (FARRE) 86
   Ctenostomata – species with lecithotrophic shelled coronate larvae 87
   Flustrellidra hispida (FABRICIUS) 87
   Pherusella tubulosa (ELLIS & SOLANDER) 94
   Ctenostomata – species with lecithotrophic coronate larvae without shell 95
   Alcyonidium gelatinosum (LINNÉ) 95
   Triticella flava (DALYELL) 100
   Bowerbankia gracilis (LEIDY) 101
   Bulbella abscondita (BRAEM) 106
   Victorella muelleri (KRAEPELIN) 106
   Paludicella articulata (EHRENBERG) 109
   Cheilostomata 110
   Anasca – species with planktotrophic shelled cyphonautes larvae 110
   Electra pilosa (LINNÉ) 110
   Membranipora membranacea (LINNÉ) 115
   Electra crustulenta (PALLAS) 118
   Electra monostachys (BUSK) 120
   Conopeum seurati (CANU) 120
   Conopeum reticulum (LINNÉ) 120
   Anasca – species with lecithotrophic coronate larvae 120
   Bugula flabellata (THOMPSON) 120
   Bugula neritina (LINNÉ) 123
   Tricellaria occidentalis (TRASK) 128
   Cheilostomata 129
   Ascophora – species with lecithotrophic coronate larvae 129
   Watersipora cucullata (BUSK) 129
   Watersipora arcuata (BANTA) 130
   Stenolaemata 132
   Stenostomata – species with polyembryony and lecithotrophic coronate larvae 132
   Crisia ramosa (HARMER) 132
   Crisia eburnea (LINNÉ) 135
   Lichenopora verrucaria (FABRICIUS) 137
   Phylactolaemata 141
   Plumatella fungosa (PALLAS) 141
   Fredericella sultana (BLUMENBACH) 146
   Summary of Embryonic Development in Bryozoa 151
   Gametes and fertilization 151
   Brooding mechanisms in Gymnolaemata 151
   Brooding mechanisms in Stenolaemata 152
   Brooding mechanisms in Phylactolaemata 152
   Embryogenesis in Gymnolaemata 153
   Cleavage and gastrulation 153
   Larvae of Gymnolaemata 153
   Cyphonautes larvae 153
   Coronate larvae 154
   Metamorphosis of gymnolaemate larvae 155
   Embryogenesis in Stenolaemata 155
   Embryogenesis in Phylactolaemata 156
   Embryonic development in Bryozoa and evolutionary interpretation 156
   Hypothetical gymnolaemate larva 157
   Coelom cavities in bryozoan larvae 157
   Class level relationships of Bryozoa 158
   Embryonic and larval features 158
   Biradial symmetry in cleavage 158
   Endoderm and digestive tract 158
   Mesoderm and coelom 158
   Metasomal or adhesive sac 159
   Pyriform organ 159
   Larval corona 159
   Ciliated ridge of cyphonautes 160
   Adult features 160
   Lophophore 160
   Coelom cavities 160
   Phylum level relationships of Bryozoa 161
   Literature 162
Glossary 167

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