Up to roughly the end of the 19th century, most buildings were constructed from local materials. A quarry or pit a mile or two away meant a relatively cheap supply of building material. It also meant that what went into the construction of a building reflected the nature of the underlying rocks! This is particularly true of rural areas, but cities and towns with good rocky foundations such as Sunderland and Newcastle also made the most of the local natural resources.
Sadly, from about the start of the 20th century, use of local materials went into decline. Production of quality building stone became more and more expensive and was ousted by cheaper imports from elsewhere in the UK, and increasingly from abroad.
In Sunderland, in North East England, you can see it all. Sunderland has an amazingly rich and fascinating geological history that has given the city and its surroundings a wide range of rock types as its foundation. There are still buildings of the 18th and 19th century (and even earlier) of which the city's inhabitants are justly proud, that have used these local materials.
The second edition has been updated and expanded for an ever-changing city environment. A full account is given of the area's geological history and how it has affected the city's development, and also environmental issues. This is a study of locally sourced and imported building stones and where to see them and includes detailed notes for six city walks, each with a take-away "geological highlights sheet" that takes you to see both the building stones and the city's unique geology.
Reviews of the second edition
"Combining the classical approach of presenting a summary of the biology of the major groups of parasites, with a broad overview of parasite ecology and evolution, this new edition will be a wonderful resource for teachers of undergraduate parasitology courses. The well-illustrated and easy-to-read text is unrivalled at the moment and will be a great tool to turn on a new generation of young minds to the wonders of parasitic organisms. A true parasitological tour de force!"
– Robert Poulin, University of Otago
"This is an extremely well written book that does an excellent job of integrating conceptual and organismal aspects of parasitology, which is not easy. The chapter on the evolution of host-parasite interactions does a very nice job of integrating micro- and macro-evolutionary approaches to this topic. The use of boxes to contain historical information and case studies is very effective. Personal accounts of the authors' own experiences studying and teaching parasitology are interesting and effective."
– Dale H. Clayton, University of Utah
"The authors have done a terrific job of implementing the dual approach stated in the title. The book combines a comprehensive and balanced presentation of parasite biodiversity with an insightful treatment of the various aspects of the ecology of host/parasite interactions. Their approach is synthetic, refreshingly original and effectively blends coverage of long-standing fundamentals of parasitology with modern advances in the field. Their clever use of text boxes highlighting intriguing parasitological examples is sure to capture the imagination of students of parasitology and other fields of biology alike, serving to illustrate the relevance and importance of the discipline overall."
– Janine N. Caira, University of Connecticut
"Interest in the ecology of infectious disease is exploding, often drawing in researchers with little background in the zoology of parasites. Parasitism gives the student both the systematic and zoological background to understand parasitology and the ecological and evolutionary context to understand why it is important to understand parasites. The authors, all extreme parasitophiles, have unmatched histories of teaching parasites to past and current generations of students. It is safe to say that Jerry Esch has read more papers about parasites than any living human. As a team, their approach is clear and scholarly, with many important updates since the first edition."
– Kevin D. Lafferty, US Geological Survey, University of California, Santa Barbara
"This is a wonderful and tractable text well suited for the undergraduate taking survey-type parasitology courses and those senior undergraduates enrolled in specialized courses on the ecology and evolution of parasites. It is a ready reference for researchers interested in the current state of knowledge of similar study problems as their own. There is a wealth of detail for well-selected examples, building on the rich experience of the authors as top-notch researchers and educators. Many examples are of medical or veterinarian or wildlife and conservation importance, meaning that they are particularly well suited to help deliver key problems and conceptual and empirical advances. This text is undoubtedly one that will come off the shelf again and again as students delve into the complex interactions between species of parasites and hosts and their current and past environments."
– Mark R. Forbes, Carleton University
"This is a well-organized integration of the diversity of ideas and methods that characterize this new field of parasite ecology. The style is easily readable, the details extraordinary, the story told from an evolutionary perspective. The first chapters lay the foundations for understanding parasite life cycles, describing the full diversity of weird and wonderful adaptations of these organisms. The focus on the organismal view is exciting, and written in the context of ideas from classic ecology. The short stories in the boxes add interesting talking points. This is a well-researched document, and even the pros will learn from this book; the literature cited sections at the chapter ends are thorough and up-to-date. The final chapters on ecology and evolution are very synthetic, and the use of examples of diverse parasite strategies to illustrate the history and current status of the field's major ideas works well. I highly recommend this book."
– Michael V. K. Sukhdeo, Rutgers University
"This is the book I would have loved to have available when I was teaching."
– John C. Holmes, from the Foreword
Reviews of the first edition:
"The authors and publishers have succeeded in producing a book that conveys all the fascinating complexity of host-parasite associations, and that should stimulate students to pursue postgraduate research and careers in parasitology. I would not hesitate to recommend it as the textbook of choice for any parasitology course with an ecological flavour."
– Robert Poulin, Parasitology
"The book is well written, clearly structured and excellently illustrated."
– Zoologischer Anzeiger
" [...] useful as an introduction to parasitology [...] the book will find its place on the shelf of already accomplished parasitologists, too."
– Jiri Lom, Folia Parasitologica
" [...] going to be a very useful textbook [...] this is an excellent book [...] and a bargain at the price."
– F. E. G. Cox, Biologist