Similipal Biosphere Reserve is situated in the Mayurbhanj district of Odisha, India, and is the natural home to a variety of animals and plants. This supports the livelihood of several tribal villages located both within and outside of it. But with increasing population and decreasing forest areas, alternate livelihood supports for the people depending on the forest need to be found. Taking into consideration these issues, a national level seminar was organized by the Centre for Similipal Studies, North Orissa University, to discuss the issues related to biodiversity conservation and livelihood management. This book covers some of the topics discussed in the seminar along with invited articles from various experts working in the field of biodiversity conservation and livelihood management. The book contains 32 chapters comprising biodiversity issues and livelihood management in two different sections. The book is extremely important for students, researchers, policymakers, and the government for the implementation of various programs related to biodiversity conservation and livelihood management.