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This book gives a broad overview of the key topics in this field of study, approaching them from a technical and economic angle giving the reader a comprehensive insight into biofuels as a whole. Dealing specifically with liquid and gaseous biofuels that can be produced from renewable resources, this text also gives a summary of the past, present and future production technologies and applications of biofuels.
This book highlights in a highly topical, competent and clear-cut presentation the significance of producing energy carriers from biobased feedstocks and their transformation processes. It encompasses developments in agriculture and a multitude of production technologies regarding both sustainability of future feedstock and requirements of human nutrition. (Starch, June 2009)
Series Preface Preface List of Contributors Chapter 1 Biofuels in Perspective W. Soetaert and E. Vandamme Fossil versus renewable energy resources Economic impact Comparison of bio-energy sources Conclusion References Chapter 2 Sustainable Production of Cellulosic Feedstock for Biorefineries in the U.S.A. James R. Hettenhaus, Brent Erickson and Matthew T. Carr Introduction Availability of Cellulosic Feedstocks Feedstock Options Sustainable Removal Erosion Control Tilling Practice Transitioning to No-till Realizing Removal Removal Economics Climate Change Mitigation Pretreatment Farmer in Value Chain The Start-Preprocessing Pentose Sugars and Lignin Continuing downstream-Fungible Fermentation Sugars Looking Upstream Logistics Conclusions Policy Recommendations References Chapter 3 Bio-ethanol Development in the U.S.A. Brent Erickson and Matthew T. Carr Introduction Federal Policy The U.S. Ethanol Market Corn Ethanol Technology Cellulosic Ethanol The Future References Chapter 4 Bio-ethanol development(s) in Brazil Arnaldo Walter Introduction The Brazilian experience with ethanol Policy and regulatory instruments applied to deploy large-scale ethanol production Cost reductions Technological development Is the ethanol production in Brazil sustainable? Is Brazilian experience replicable? Conclusions References Chapter 5 Process Technologies for Biodiesel Production Introduction Biodiesel Production Worldwide Feedstocks for Biodiesel Production Chemical Principles of Biodiesel Production  Catalysts for transesterification and esterification reactions Alkaline catalysis Acid catalysis Heterogeneous catalysis Enzymes as Catalysts Transesterification in supercritical alcohols Alternative approaches Overview of Process Technologies Single Feedstock Technologies Multi Feedstock Technologies Small scale production units Alternative process technologies Chapter 6 Bio-based Fischer-Tropsch Diesel Production Technologies Robin Zwart & Rene van Ree Chapter 7 Plant Oil Biofuel: Rationale, Production and Application Dr. Barnim Jeschke Introduction Plant Oil Biofuels - the underlying Idea History of the Plant Oil Fuel Market Positioning of Plant Oils within the Biofuel Markets Perspectives of the Plant Oil Fuel Market The Market Market Drivers System Requirements Plant Oil Conversion Technology One Tank System Two Tank System The User Perspective Engine Suitability for Plant Oil Conversion Choice of Conversion Technology and Approach Operations and Maintenance References Chapter 8 Enzymatic production of biodiesel Hideki Fukuda Introduction Enzymatic transesterification by lipase Use of extracellular lipases Transesterification with various types of alcohol Effective methanolysis using extracellular lipase Phenomenon of acyl migration in presence of lipase Use of intracellular lipase as whole-cell biocatalyst Immobilization by BSP-technology Methanolysis in a packed-bed reactor using cells immobilized within BSPs Effect of fatty acid cell membrane composition Lipase localization in cells immobilized within BSPs Use of cell-surface displaying cells as whole-cell biocatalyst Novel cell-surface display system Flocculation profile of yeast cells displaying FSProROL and FLProROL fusion proteins Methanolysis reaction using yeast cells displaying ProROL Conclusions and future prospects References Chapter 9 Production of Biodiesel from waste lipids R. Verhe, C.V. Stevens Introduction Alternative resources for biodiesel production Conversion of waste frying and cooking oils into biodiesel Processing of crude and waste lipids into biodiesel Conclusion References Chapter 10 Biomass Digestion to Methane in Agriculture: A Successful Pathway for the Energy Production and Waste Treatment Worldwide P. Weiland, W. Verstraete& A. Van Haandel Introduction Biogas production potential Germany Brazil Biogas production configurations Configurations for wastewater digestion Different process configurations for wet digestion fermenters Different process configurations for dry digestion fermenters Biogas utilization Outlook Conclusions References Chapter 11 Biological hydrogen production by anaerobic microorganisms W.M. Kengen, Heleen P. Goorissen, Marcel Verhaart, Ed W.J. van Niel, Pieternel A.M. Claassen and Alfons J.M. Stams Introduction Hydrogen formation in natural ecosystems Thermodynamics of hydrogen formation Enzymology Enterobacteria The genus Clostridium The genus Caldicellulosiruptor The genus Thermoanaerobacter The genus Thermotoga The genus Pyrococcus/Thermococcus Approaches for improving hydrogen production Concluding remarks Acknowledgment References Chapter 12 Improving Sustainability of the Corn-Ethanol Industry Paul W. Gallagher and Hosein Shapouri Introduction Energy Balance Crop Production and Greenhouse Gas Emissions CO2 Adjustment in a Changing Ethanol Industry Conclusions References
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