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Wind farms are an essential component of global renewable energy policy and the action to limit the effects of climate change. There is, however, considerable concern over the impacts of wind farms on wildlife, leading to a wide range of research and monitoring studies, a growing body of literature and several international conferences on the topic.
This unique multi-volume work provides a comprehensive overview of the interactions between wind farms and wildlife.
Volume 4 provides a state-of-the-science guide to monitoring and mitigation to minimise or even eliminate impacts on wildlife from offshore wind farms. The survey and monitoring section includes detailed chapters on fish and invertebrate communities, marine mammals and seabirds, and a chapter dedicated to the use of tracking technology applied to birds. The section continues with a chapter on collision risk and population modelling that underpins much current impact assessment, and a chapter detailing how collision risk for birds and bats may be monitored at sea. The mitigation section comprises chapters outlining mitigation options and strategies for birds and bats, and how to mitigate the effects of noise, especially during construction, on marine mammals and fish. A chapter on perspectives on marine spatial planning as applied to wind farms concludes the volume.
The authors have been carefully selected from across the globe from the large number of academics, consultants and practitioners now engaged in wind farm studies, for their influential contribution to the science. Edited by Martin Perrow and with contributions by over 40 leading researchers including: Aonghais Cook, Thomas Dahlgren, Johann Köppel, Meike Scheidat, Henrik Skov, Chris Thaxter & Frank Thomsen. The authors represent a wide range of organisations and institutions including the Universities of Gothenberg, Ghent, Highlands & Islands and Wageningen, Chalmers University of Technology and Technical University of Berlin, British Trust for Ornithology, The Carbon Trust, Institute of Avian Research Vogelwarte Helgoland, Institute for Applied Ecosystem Research (IfAÖ), Norwegian Institute for Nature Research (NINA) and Sea Mammal Research Unit (SMRU); as well as several leading consultancies.
Each chapter includes informative figures, tables, photographs and detailed case studies. Several of the latter are produced stand-alone from invited specialists to ensure geographic spread and to showcase exciting new research. This book is designed as the definitive guide on the topic for practitioners, researchers, managers and planners as well as students in higher education engaged in studies of the environment, ecology, climate change, conservation and impact assessment.
1. Monitoring invertebrates and fish / Thomas G. Dahlgren, Linus Hammar and Olivia Langhamer
2. Monitoring marine mammals / Meike Scheidat and Lindsay Porter
3. Surveying seabirds / Andy Webb and Georg Nehls
4. Telemetry and tracking of birds / Chris B. Thaxter and Martin R. Perrow
5. Modelling collision risk and predicting population-level consequences / Aonghais S. C. P. Cook and Elizabeth A. Masden
6. Measuring bird and bat collision and avoidance / Markus Molis, Reinhold Hill, Ommo Hüppop, Lothar Bach, Timothy Coppack, Steve Pelletier, Tobias Dittmann and Axel Schulz
7. Mitigating noise / Frank Thomsen and Tobias Verfuß
8. Mitigation for birds and bats / Andrew J. P. Harwood and Martin R. Perrow
9. Perspectives on marine spatial planning / Johann Köppel, Juliane Biehl, Marie Dahmen, Gesa Geissler and Michelle E. Portman
Martin Perrow is Founder and Director of ECON Ecological Consultancy Ltd and currently manages the ornithological requirements of several wind farm sites, assessing the likely impacts and providing advice in order to engineer the co-existence of birds and wind farms with minimal impacts. He has published widely on the subject.
"[...] This four-volume series provides a much-needed overview of the potential effects of wind farms on wildlife and local ecosystems as well as potential solutions. Due to inherent differences between onshore and offshore wind farms, the series is divided into four volumes written by leading experts in the field, although the writing style is very accessible for a broad professional audience. The four volumes are similar in structure and topic coverage, and each can be read independently [...] We consider these four volumes to provide an excellent introduction and overview into the broad range of effects of wind farms on ecological systems, and on monitoring methodologies and potential mitigation measures. The volumes are highly recommended to anyone interested in the field – students, researchers, consultants, practitioners and policy-makers, even if their focus is only on a single taxonomic group. Due to the imbalance in research conducted worldwide, as explicitly mentioned by the editor and authors, Volumes 1 and 2 provide contributions mainly from North American and Europe and Volumes 3 and 4 have a stronger geographical bias towards research in western Europe. That understandable bias will hopefully be more limited in the future as data from other parts of the world become available. Several chapters would have benefitted from cross-references between chapters, but the final chapter of each volume generally integrates information well, highlighting gaps in our knowledge and providing some suggestions for the future. In this quickly growing field, where a great deal of work is not published in peer-reviewed journals, these highly informative and accessible volumes are a great place to start, as they are structured to facilitate both quick referencing and more in-depth reading."
– Judy Shamoun-Baranes, Elspeth Sage, Jens van Erp & Emiel van Loon, Ibis, 2020