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About this book
About this book
Brought to the public's attention in the film Erin Brockovich, chromium(VI) (Cr(VI)) may be a larger problem than it was once thought to be. For example, the Silicon Valley Toxics Coalition estimates that the 315 million computers expected to become obsolete and discarded by the year 2004 would contain, among other toxic constituents, 1.2 million pounds of Cr(VI), a hazardous waste when released into the environment. Because of the high stakes involved in Cr(VI) litigation issues, there is a demand for clear, accurate, and authoritative information on this subject as provided in this handbook. Compiled by a team of scientists, engineers, regulators, and lawyers, the Chromium(VI) Handbook consolidates the latest literature on this topic. The broad scope of this book fills the need for a comprehensive resource on Cr(VI), improving the understanding of its behavior when the extent and degree of the problem are still being evaluated. Up-to-date, succinct, and practical, the Chromium(VI) Handbook provides a detailed understanding of the geochemistry that controls the distribution of chromium in its various forms in soil and groundwater. This book is a well-organized guide for scientifically-based site assessments and remediation of Cr(VI), and a definitive resource for environmental remediation, industrial hygiene, and occupational health professionals.
INTRODUCTION; Purpose; Introduction to Cr(VI) Problem; Some Facts about Cr(VI), History; Origin; Production and Use of Chromium; Potential Environmental Effects of Use and Disposal; References, Acknowledgements; SOURCES OF CHROMIUM CONTAMINATION IN SOIL AND GROUNDWATER; In Soil; In Groundwater; Superfund; Chromium-Benefits and Perceived Costs; Occurrence of Chromium Contamination in Soil and Groundwater; References, Acknowledgements; GEOLOGY AND GEOCHEMISTRY OF CHROMIUM AND CHROMIUM COMPOUNDS; Chromium Chemistry and Geochemistry; Chromium Distribution in Primary Environments; Migration of Chromium in Secondary Environments; Ore Deposits; Chromium Minerals; Hydrothermal Alteration Effects on Chromium Solubility and Migration; List of Known Chromium Minerals; References, Acknowledgements; NATURALLY OCCURRING CHROMIUM(VI) IN GROUNDWATER, INCLUDING THE PRESIDIO OF SAN FRANCISCO CASE STUDY; Introduction; Presidio Setting and Problem; Previously Documented Cases of Naturally Occurring Cr(VI) in Groundwater; Conceptual Model; Study Approach; Results; Conclusions; The Erin Brockovich Effect; Implications for Water Supplies; References, Acknowledgements; TRANSPORT AND FATE OF CHROMIUM IN THE ENVIRONMENT; Introduction; Importance of Transport and Fate Assessments in Environmental Restoration Projects; Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Chromium Important to its Transport and Fate; Transport and Fate of Chromium in the Atmosphere; Transport and Fate of Chromium in Surface Water; Transport and Fate of Chromium in Groundwater; Implications of Chromium Transport and Fate Characteristics for Environmental Restoration Projects; Natural Attenuation of Cr(VI)References, Acknowledgements; TOXICITY AND HEALTH EFFECTS OF CHROMIUM; Introduction; Health Benefit: Metabolism; Cancer Effects; Noncancer Effects; Ecological Effects: Aquatic Toxicity; Evaluation of Studies and Data Gaps; Key Issues; Human Health Risk Calculations; References, Acknowledgements; CHROMIUM(VI) SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS; Introduction; Analysis of Samples for Detection of Chromium; Validated Methods for Detection of Chromium; Nonvalidated Methods for Detection of Chromium in Drinking Water; Methods of Analysis for Detection of Chromium in Other Media; Variations in Analysis Resulting in the Presence of Other Constituents; Sampling Methods; References, Acknowledgements; TREATMENT CONCEPTS; Introduction; Physical Chemistry and Biochemistry of Treatment Processes; Treatment Processes for Chromium in Water; Treatment Processes for Chromium in Soils; References; Acknowledgement; IN SITU TREATMENT METHODS; Introduction: Passive and Active In Situ Methods; Funnel and Gate and Slurry Walls; Reactive Barriers; Phytoremediation; Micro-Biological Methods; Vitrification; Solidification/Stabilization (Precipitation)Enhanced Electrokinetic and Electro-osmosis; Soil Flushing and Soil Washing; Other Methods; References, Acknowledgements; CHROMIUM: A REGULATORY PERSPECTIVE ON ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY; Introduction; The Making of Environmental Policy; Risk Assessment and Health Models; Regulatory Issues; Comparison of Diverse State Policies; California: Policy and Transition