In an era where climate change, natural catastrophes and land degradation are major issues, the conservation of soil and vegetation in mountainous or sloping regions has become an international priority. How to avoid substrate mass movement through landslides and erosion using sustainable and ecologically sound techniques is rapidly becoming a scientific domain where knowledge from many different fields is required. These proceedings bring together papers from geotechnical and civil engineers, biologists, ecologists and foresters, who discuss current problems in slope stability research, and how to address those problems using ground bio- and eco-engineering techniques.
Ground bioengineering methods integrate civil engineering techniques with natural materials to obtain fast, effective and economic methods of protecting, restoring and maintaining the environment whereas eco-engineering has been defined as a long-term ecological strategy to manage a site with regard to natural or man-made hazards. Studies on slope instability, erosion, soil hydrology, mountain ecology, land use and restoration and how to mitigate these problems using vegetation are presented by both scientists and practitioners. Papers encompass many aspects of this multidisciplinary subject, including the mechanisms and modelling of root reinforcement and the development of decision support systems, areas where significant advances have been made in recent years.
Mechanisms and modelling of root reinforcement on slopesThe influence of cellulose content on tensile strength of tree roots; M. Genet, A. Stokes, F. Salin, S.B. Mickovski, T. Fourcaud, J-F. Dumail, L.P.H. van BeekNovel biomechnical analysis of plant roots; O. Hamza, A.G. Bengough, M.F. Bransby, M.C.R. Davies, C. Halpin, .D. HallettRoot reinforcement: Analysis and experiments; T.H. WuRoot strength and root area of forest species in Lombardy (Northern Italy); G.B. Bischetti, E.A. Chiaradia, T. Simonato, B. Speziali, B. Vitali, P. Vullo, A. ZoccoBiotechnical characteristics of root systems of typical Mediterranean species; C. Mattia, G.B. Bischetti, F. GentileUprooting of vetiver resistance of vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides); S.B. Mickovski, L.P.H van Beek, F. SalinRoot reinforcement by hawthorn and oak roots on a highway cut-slope in Southern England; J.E. NorrisProtection roles of forest and non-forest woody species on slopes in Iran; G.H. Bibalani, B. Majnonian, E. Adeli, H. SaniiReinforcement of tree roots in slope stability: a case study from the Ozawa slope in Iwate Prefecture, Japan; H. Nakamura, Q.M. Nghiem, N. IwasaObservation and simulation of root reinforcement on abandoned Mediterranean slopes; L.P.H. van Beek, J. Wint, L.H. Cammeraat, J.P. EdwardsSlope stabilisation by perennial "gramineae" in Southern Italy: plant growth and temporal performance; D. Cazzuffi, A. Corneo, E. CrippaRoot system morphology and anchorageRoot system asymmetry of Mediterranean pines; P. Ganatsas, I. SpanosRoot morphology, stem growth and field performance of seedlings of two Mediterranean evergreen oak species raised in different container types; M. Tsakaldimi, T. Zagas, T. Tsitsoni, P. GanatsasStabilizing characteristics of New Zealand indigenous riparian colonising plants; M. Marden, D. Rowan, C. PhillipsMechanical resistance of different tree species to rockfall in the French Alps; A. Stokes, F. Salin, A.D. Kokutse, S. Berthier, H. Jeannin, S. Mochan, L. Dorren, N. Kokutse, M. Abd.Ghani, T. FourcaudRoot morphology and strain distribution during tree failure on mountain slopes; A. Stokes, M.Abd.Ghani, F. Salin, F. Dajon, H. Heannin, S. Berthier, A.D. Kokutse, H. FrochotA numerical investigation into the influence of soil type and root architecture on tree anchorage; L. Dupuy, T. Fourcaud, A. StokesMethodology applied to eco- and ground bio-engineeringSLIP4EX ? A program for routine slope stability analysis to include the effects of vegetation, reinforcement and hydrological changes; J.R. GreenwoodSite investigation for the effects of vegetation on ground stability; J.R. Greenwood, J.E. Norris, J. WintMechanics of root-pullout from soil: a novel image and stress analysis procedure; O. Hamza, A.G. Bengough, M.F. Bransby, M.C.R. Davies, P.D. HallettDendrogeomorphological observations in a landslide on Tymfristos mountain in Central Greece; A. M. Papadopoulos, A. Mertzanis, A. Pantera Monitoring ground bio-engineering stabilization of land-slides in Lazio region (Italy); F. Preti, C. Milanese, F. Gubernale, S. De Bartoli, G. FalcoThe use of geostatistical techniques applied to soil conservation of low density woodlands; T. PanagopoulosA computer system using two membership functions and t-norms for the calculation of mountainous watersheds torrential risk: the case of lakes Trixonida and Lisimaxia; F. Maris, L. IliadisComparison between two low cost photogrammetric systems: the analytical instrument Adam ASP2000 and the digital photogrammetric station DVP; V.C. DrososApplications at the slope levelVegetative-based technologies for erosion control; R.P.C. MorganVegetation succession and its consequences for slope stability in SE Spain; L.H. Cammeraat, L.P.H. van BeekHedge Brush Layers and Live Crib Walls ? Stand Development and Benefits; R. StanglVegetation dynamics on sediment deposits upstream of bioengineering works in mountainous marly gullies in a Mediterranean climate (Southern Alps, France); F. Rey, F. Isselin-Nondedeu, A. BedecarratsImplementation and monitoring of soil bioengineering measures at a landslide in the Middle Mountains of Nepal; W. Lammeranner, H.P. Rauch, S. Wibmer, S. Belihart Beech coppice short-term hydrological balance for simulated rainfall; P. Trucchi, M.C. AndrenelliBeech coppice leaf cover and gross-rainfall quali-quantitative transformation in simulated rainfall events of high intensity; P. Trucchi, M.C. AndrenelliEffect of repeated fire on plant community recovery in Penteli, central Greece; G. Goudelis, P.P. Ganatsas, I. Spanos, A. KarpiEffects of postfire logging on soil and vegetation recovery in a Pinus halepensis Mill. forest of Greece; I. Spanos, Y. Raftoyiannis, G. Goudelis, E. Xanthpoulou, T. Samara, A. TsiontsisThe contribution of agrotechnical following a fire to the protection of forest soils and the regeneration of natural reforestation; M.A. Sapountsis, G.S. Efthimiou, P. StefanidisDecision support systems in Eco-engineering: The Case of the SDSS; S.B. MickovskiA decision support system for the evaluation of eco-engineering strategies for slope protection; S. B. Mickovski, L.P.H. van BeekEco- and ground bio-engineering case studies by practitionersLand restoration for the Olympic Games in Athens ? Greece: Case study Lycabettus slopes (cycle road); J. GeorgiHerbaceous plant cover establishment on highway road sides; Z. Koukoura, A. Kyriazopoulos, I. KarmirisErosion control by application of hydroseeding methods along the Egnatia Motorway (Greece); M. Katritzidakis, A. Liapis, I. Stathakopoulos, E. Pipinis, G. Kekis, E. Ververidou, E. SevastouRestoration of slopes disturbed by a motorway company: Egnatia Odos, Greece; M. Katritzidakis, E. Pipinis, A. Liapis, I. Stathakopoulos, G. Kekis, E. Ververidou, E. SevastouInstability effects of the landforms, in artificially modulated banks along the road Thermopyles-Nafpaktos (Ftiotida-Greece); A. Mertzanis, A. Papadopoulos, A. PanteraEvaluation of revegetation techniques on a mining spoil slopes; G. BrofasRevegetation on steep slopes and in subalpine areas using biennial cover plants: A review of Huter?s technique; J. HeumaderComparison of revegetation techniques on Alpine Slopes prone to avalanches and erosion; T. Schmid