The root is the organ that functions as the interface between the plant and the earth environment. Many human management practices involving crops, forests and natural vegetation also affect plant growth through the soil and roots. Understanding the morphology and function of roots from the cellular level to the level of the whole root system is required for both plant production and environmental protection. This book is at the forefront of plant root science (rhizology), catering to professional plant scientists and graduate students. It covers root development, stress physiology, ecology, and associations with microorganisms. The chapters are selected papers originally presented at the 6th Symposium of the International Society of Root Research, where plant biologists, ecologists, soil microbiologists, crop scientists, forestry scientists, and environmental scientists, among others, gathered to discuss current research results and to establish rhizology as a newly integrated research area.