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Renamed to reflect the expanded scope of the second edition, Ecosystems and Human Health: Toxicology and Environmental Hazards builds on the foundation created by the author in the first edition, Environmental Hazards and Human Health. Written in a journalistic, easily accessible style, this book bridges the gap between toxicology and environmental sciences by exploring man-made and natural hazards, and the risks they pose to wildlife and human health.See what's new in the second edition. It features: coverage of environmental hormone disrupters; a section on Multiple Chemical Sensitivity; expanded discussion of the controversy over genetically modified foods; and, new information on mechanisms of action of marine venoms and poisons. Ecosystems and Human Health: Toxicology and Environmental Hazards, Second Edition explores the broad range of environmental and human health aspects of chemical and biological hazards. The author covers the basic principles of pharmacology and toxicology as well as risk analysis, air and water pollution, and various toxicants, hazards, and poisons. He presents numerous examples of the intimate relationship between ecosystem health and human health and of the need to consider this relationship whenever human activities are likely to have a significant environmental impact.
PRINCIPLES OF PHARMACOLOGY AND TOXICOLOGY Introduction Pharmacokinetics Pharmacodynamics Factors Influencing Responses to Xenobiotics Some Toxicological Considerations Mutagenesis and Carcinogenesis The Role of Cell Repair and Regeneration in Toxic Reactions Fetal Toxicology Further Reading Review Questions RISK ANALYSIS AND PUBLIC PERCEPTIONS OF RISK Introduction Assessment of Toxicity vs. Risk Predicting Risk: Workplace vs. The Environment Risk Assessment and Carcinogenesis Sources of Error in Predicting Cancer Risk Environmental Monitoring Setting Safe Limits in the Workplace Environmental Risks: Problems with Assessment and Public Perceptions Some Examples of Major Industrial Accidents and Environmental Chemical Exposures with Human Health Implications Some Legal Aspects of Risk Statistical Problems with Risk Assessment Risk Management Further Reading Review Questions Case Studies 1 - 2 WATER AND SOIL POLLUTION Introduction Factors Affecting Toxicants in Water Toxicity Testing in Marine and Aquatic Species Water Quality Health Hazards of Pesticides and Related Chemicals Acidity and Toxic Metals Chemical Hazards from Waste Disposal Toxicants in the Great Lakes: Implications for Human Health and Wildlife The Marine Environment Aquatic Toxicology Biological Hazards in Drinking Water Further Reading Review Questions AIRBORNE HAZARDS Introduction Types of Air Pollution Sources of Air Pollution Atmospheric Distribution of Pollutants Types of Pollutants Health Effects of Air Pollution Air Pollution in the Workplace Chemical Impact of Pollutants on the Environment Global Warming Global Cooling: New Ice Age? Natural Factors and Climate Change Remedies Further Reading Review Questions Case Studies 3 - 8 HALOGENATED HYDROCARBONS AND HALOGENATED AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS Introduction Physicochemical Characteristics and Classes of Halogenated Hydrocarbons Further Reading Review Questions Case Studies 9 - 10 TOXICITY OF METALS Introduction Lead Mercury Cadmium Arsenic Chromium Other Metals Methallothioneins Carcinogenicity of Metals Unusual Sources of Heavy Metal Exposure Further Reading Review Questions Case Studies 11 - 13 ORGANIC SOLVENTS AND RELATED CHEMICALS Introduction Classes of Solvents Solvent-Related Cancer in the Workplace Factors Influencing the Risk of a Toxic Reaction Non-occupational Exposures to Solvents Further Reading Review Questions Case Studies 14 - 16 FOOD ADDITIVES, DRUG RESIDUES AND FOOD TOXICANTS Food Additives Drug Residues Natural Toxicants and Carcinogens in Human Foods Further Reading Review Questions Case Study 17 PESTICIDES Introduction Classes of Insecticides Herbicides Fungicides Newer Biological Control Methods Government Regulation of Pesticides Problems Associated with Pesticides Balancing the Risks and the Benefits Toxicity of Pesticides for Humans Further Reading Review Questions Case Studies 18 - 19 MYCOTOXINS AND OTHER TOXINS FROM UNICELLULAR ORGANISMS Introduction Some Human Health Problems Due to Mycotoxins Economic Impact of Mycotoxins Trichothecenes Detoxification of Grains Other Toxins in Unicellular Members of the Plant Kingdom Further Reading Review Questions ANIMAL AND PLANT POISONS Introduction Toxic and Venomous Animals Toxic Plants and Mushrooms Use in Research and Treatment Further Reading Review Questions Case Studies 20 - 25 ENVIRONMENTAL HORMONE DISRUPTERS Introduction The Lake Apopka Incident A Brief Review of the Physiology of Estrogens and Androgens Mechanisms of Hormone Disruption Phytoestrogens Results of Human Studies Effects in Livestock and Wildlife Problems in interpreting and Extrapolating Results to Humans Further Reading Review Questions RADIATION HAZARDS Introduction Sources and Types of Radiation Measurement of Radiation Major Nuclear Disasters of Historic Importance Radon Gas: The Natural Radiation Tissue Sensitivity to Radiation Microwaves Ultraviolet Radiation Extra-low Frequency (ELF) Electromagnetic Radiation Irradiation of Foodstuffs Further Reading Review Questions GAIA AND CHAOS: HOW THINGS ARE CONNECTED The GAIA Hypothesis Chaos Theory Other Examples of Interconnected Systems Food Production and the Environment The Environment and Cancer Further Reading CASE STUDY REVIEWS