This refeence work is an updated, revised, and expanded edition of the successful Encyclopedia of Ecology, published in 2008.
Ecology is the study of the interactions of living systems and their environments. It covers all scales of biological organization from organisms to population to communities to ecosystems. It utilizes laboratory, field, simulation modelling, and theoretical approaches to understand how living systems sustain structure and function in space and time. More and more, ecological principles are applied to inform human, social, and even economic problems. The science underpins our knowledge of sustainability and has immediate and relevant impacts for the ecological and environmental issues confronting humanity today.
The first edition was a useful reference work for students, scientists and practitioners in the ecological field, however the field has changed rapidly over the past decade. This second edition of Encyclopedia of Ecology accomplishes three main objectives. The first is to update the articles in the first edition in need of revision, about two-thirds of the original entries; other entries have been discarded or their content included in new comprehensive chapters. Second, this new edition adds new topics (approximately 100 chapters) that were not present in the first edition, thus remaining at the cutting edge of the field. Clear areas of advancement since the first edition are at the micro and macro scales: molecular and genetic ecology, as well as global ecology (e.g., climate change, earth transformations, ecosystem services, and the food-water-energy nexus). Thirdly, Encyclopedia of Ecology includes new authors who are international leading experts in ecology; the emphasis has been on recruiting top young scientists, who will likely encourage the use of these articles in their courses and research labs.
A main strength of this work is that it will be an objective voice bringing together many authors and viewpoints into one collection, with the aim of effectively representing and linking both theory and application. The encyclopedia is comprehensive, yet with a common structure to the articles. For example, authors are guided to use a template such that each article will include: Introduction, Question/Issue addressed, Background/Historical development, Current state-of-the-art, Further reading. Each article will be roughly 6 pages long. The articles include, where appropriate, multimedia features such as Elsevier's Interactive Map Tool, and provide cross-references within the encyclopedia. Instead of taking an alphabetized approach as per the first edition, this second edition of Encyclopedia of Ecology is arranged thematically to highlight more fully the interconnections between articles.
This reference work will be a first-stop, go-to reference for an accurate and reliable report on all topics in the field of ecology.
PART I: GIS PRINCIPLES Section 1. Perspectives on GIS Section 2. Data capture and pre-processing Section 3. Data organization Section 4. Spatial data analysis Section 5. Data quality Section 6. Implementation and management PART II: TECHNICAL DESIGNS OF GIS Section 7. Web and mobile GIS Section 8. Cyber infrastructure and GIS Section 9. Collaborative GIS Section 10. Virtual GIS * Temporal database; Dynamic visualization; 4D analysis PART III: GIS APPLICATIONS III-1: GIS FOR BIO-PHYSICAL, ENVIRONMENTAL APPLICATIONS Section 12. GIS for land use/land cover Section 13. GIS for urban planning Section 14. GIS for transportation and logistics Section 15. GIS for natural hazard Section 16. GIS for emergency management Section 17. GIS for natural resource Section 18. GIS for atmospheric environment Section 19. GIS for hydrology Section 20. GIS for ecosystems Section 21. GIS for the oceans Section 22. GIS for climate change III-2: GIS FOR SOCIO-ECONOMIC APPLICATIONS Section 23. GIS for history Section 24. GIS for business management Section 25. GIS for social science Section 26. GIS for public health Section 27. GIS for public safety Section 28. GIS for politics
Brian D. Fath is Associate Professor in the Department of Biological Sciences at Towson University (MD, USA). He teaches courses in ecosystem ecology, environmental biology, networks, and human ecology and sustainability. Dr. Fath has also taught short-courses on ecological modelling in Portugal, Croatia, and Denmark. Since 2002, he is a regular summer research scientist at the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (Austria). Dr. Fath graduated in 1990 from Miami University (OH) with degrees in Physics and Aeronautics. He completed an M.S. degree in Environmental Science at Ohio State University (1993) and earned a Ph.D. in Ecology from the University of Georgia in 1998. He was a Post-Doctoral Fellow at the University of Georgia (1998-2000) and the U.S. EPA in Cincinnati (2000-2001). Dr. Fath researches system sustainability using ecological network analysis, integrated environmental assessment, and information theory. He has published research papers in Journal of Theoretical Biology, Ecological Modelling, Biosystems, Ecological Complexity, Environmental Modelling and Software, and Ecosystems. He has co-authored the book A New Ecology: Systems Perspective. Professional Service includes: Associate Editor for the journal Ecological Modelling (since 2005), Associate Editor-in-chief for the Encyclopedia of Ecology, President, North American Chapter of International Society for Ecological Modelling (since 2006), Editorial Board, The Scientific World Journal (2001-present), Editorial Board, International Journal of Ecodynamics (2004-present), Board of Directors, International Environmental Modelling and Software Society (2004-present), Baltimore County Commission on Environmental Quality (2005-present).