European Bison: The Nature Monograph is foremost devoted to the bison populations of Bialowieza Forest in Poland, where the authors have conducted years of research. They briefly discuss bison taxonomy, modern history, genetics, and morphology. Formation of the Polish populations, changes in their size range in the last 50 years, structure, and mortality are discussed in more detail. A comparison is made between the bison populations of Bialowieza Forest and the rest of the European bison population. Further topics include their reproductive biology, activity patterns, social organisation, migration, and habitat selection. Lastly, population management, current threats, and the legal status of the bison in Poland are discussed.