About this book
Flocculation is a dominant process in aquatic environments, fundamental to water and wastewater treatment systems. Environmental and economic consequences of flocculation include sedimentation and contaminant transport, which can bring about habitat destructions and affect human health via deterioration of source waters. Understanding the production and behavior of flocs is essential for predicting the fate and effects of particulate material in natural aquatic systems and in the operation of engineered systems. These interests have generated an increased emphasis on floc research. While new developments in sampling, microscopy, molecular science, and modeling permit increasingly revealing investigations into flocculation processes and floc structure, there is still a fundamental lack of knowledge related to many aspects of this phenomenon. "Flocculation in Natural and Engineered Environmental Systems" is composed of 20 peer-reviewed, stand-alone chapters presented by a prominent team of international experts. The book focuses on physical and chemical aspects, and on the growing importance of biological processes for flocculation. It examines transport and settling, biology and metabolism, modeling, and the structural and behavioral differences between environments. "Flocculation in Natural and Engineered Environmental Systems" offers a unique perspective by interrelating the study of flocculation in freshwater, saltwater, and engineered systems with the methods, theories, and principles of flocculation processes. In doing so, the authors reveal the full range of sampling, handling, analytical, and interpretive options for operational management of natural and engineered systems.
PrefaceMethods Applied to Flocculation Studies S.N. Liss, T.G. Milligan, I.G. Droppo, and G.G. LeppardFRESHWATER ENVIRONMENTSOverview of Flocculation Processes in Freshwater Ecosystems G.G. Leppard and I.G. DroppoIntra-Storm and Seasonal Variations in the Effective Particle Size Characteristics and Effective Particle Density of Fluvial Suspended Sediment in the Exe Basin, Devon, United KingdomJ.M. Phillips and D.E. WallingThe composite Nature of Suspended and Gravel Stored Fine Sediment in Streams: A Case Study of O'Ne-eil Creek, British Columbia, CanadaE.L. PetticrewEffects of Floc Size and Shape in Particle AggregationJ.F. Atkinson, R.K. Chakraborti and J.E. VanBenschotenMapping Biopolymer Distributions in Microbial CommunitiesJ.R. Lawrence, A.P. Hitchcock, G.G. Leppard and T.R. NeuContrasting Roles of Natural Organic Matter on Colloidal Stabilization and Flocculation in FreshwatersK.J. Wilkinson and A. ReinhardtAn example of Modeling Flocculation in a Freshwater Aquatic System.B.G. Krishnappan and J. MarsalekSALTWATER ENVIRONMENTSTransport of Materials and Chemicals by Nano-Scale Colloids and Micro- to Macro-Scale Flocs in Marine, Freshwater and Engineered SystemsP.H. Santschi, A.B. Burd, J.-F. Gaillard and A. LazaridesVariability of Suspended Particle Concentrations, Sizes and Settling Velocities in the Chesapeake Bay Turbidity MaximumL.P. Sanford, P.J. Dickhudt, L. Rubiano-Gomez, M. Yates, S.E. Suttles, C.T. Friedrichs, D.D. Fugate and H. RomineOrganic Rich Aggregates in the Ocean: Formation, Transport Behavior and Biochemical CompositionL. ThomsenEquilibrium and Non-Equilibrium Floc SizesJ.C. WinterwerpCoagulation theory and Models of Oceanic Plankton AggregationG.A. JacksonENGINEERED SYSTEMSExtracellular Enzymes Associated with Microbial Flocs from Activated Sludge of Wastewater Treatment Systems.G.G. Geesey and F. Van Ommen KloekeMolecular Analyses of Microbial Community Structure and Function of Flocs.H. DaimsUsing Atomic Force Microscopy to Study Factors Affecting Bioadhesion at Nanoscale LevelsB.E. LoganImpact of Stresses or Transient Conditions on Deflocculation in Engineered Microbial SystemsF. Morgan-Sagastume and D.G. AllenFlocs and Ultraviolet DisinfectionR. FarnoodSurface Thermodynamics and Hydrophobic Properties of Microbial Flocs.B. Q. Liao, G. G. Leppard, D. G. Allen, I. G. Droppo and S. N. LissSUMMARYOpportunities, Needs and Strategic Direction for Research on Flocculation in Natural and Engineered Systems I.G. Droppo, G.G. Leppard, S.N. Liss and T.G. Milligan