Forestry has been witness to some dramatic changes in recent years, with several Western countries now moving away from the traditional model of regarding forests merely as sources of wood. Rather these countries are increasingly recognizing their forests as multi-purpose resources with roles which go far beyond simple economics.
In this innovative book, Sylvie Nail uses England as a case study to explore the relationships between forests, society and public perceptions, raising important questions about forest policy and management both now and in the future. Adopting a sociological approach to forest policy and management, the book discusses the current validity of the two principles underlying forestry since the Middle Ages: first, that forestry should only exist when no better use of the land can be made, and second, that forestry itself should be profitable. The author stresses how values and perceptions shape policies, and conversely how policies can modify perceptions, and also how policies can fail if they do not take perceptions into account.
She concludes that many of the issues facing English forestry in the 21st century a" from leisure, health and amenity provision, through education and rural as well as urban regeneration, to biodiversity conservation a" go well beyond both national borders and the scope of forestry. Indeed forestry in the 21st century seems to be less about planting and managing trees than about being a vector and a mirror of social change. This novel synthesis provides a valuable resource for advanced students and researchers from all areas of natural resource studies, including those interested in social history, socio-economics, cultural geography and environmental psychology, as well as those studying landscape ecology, environmental history, policy analysis and natural resource management.
Introduction.- 1. Woodlands as landscapes of power. 1.1 British woodlands, from nature to culture. 1.1.1 The natural woodland. 1.1.2 The beginnings of cultivation. 1.2 Woodlands as spaces of exclusion. 1.2.1 The Forest Law. 1.2.2 Hunting as an aristocratic privilege. 1.2.3 Reactions and controversy. 1.3 The economic balance between agriculture and forestry. 1.3.1 Woodlands as residual land use. 1.3.2 The uses of wood and timber. 1.3.3 The beginnings of plantations. 1.4 Wooden walls and hearts of oak. 1.4.1 Political identity. 1.4.2 The oak and the navy. 1.4.3 Hardwoods and social status. 1.4.4 The aesthetics of tree-planting.- PART 1: THE INSTITUTIONALISATION OF FORESTRY. 2. New relationships with the woodland. 2.1 Agriculture in crisis. 2.1.1 The end of the landed aristocracy. 2.1.2 Changing needs in woodland products. 2.2 The emergence of scientific forestry. 2.2.1 The disappearance of amateurism. 2.2.2 Towards a national forest policy. 2.3 Urbanisation and the rural idyll. 2.3.1 The growth of cities. 2.3.2 'Urban hells' versus forest heritage. 2.4 Woodland and leisure for the working-class. 2.4.1 The public park movement. 2.4.2 Woodlands for recreation.- 3. The productivist dream and its aftermath. 3.1 The traumatic context of World War I. 3.1.1 The Acland Committee. 3.1.2 The Forestry Commission at its beginnings. 3.1.3 The first international congresses. 3.2 Post-Second World War priorities. 3.2.1 Post-War Forestry Acts. 3.2.2 Economic priorities. 3.3 Waking up. 3.3.1 Acknowledging failure. 3.3.2 Structural changes. 3.4 New labour and the England forestry strategy. 3.4.1 Changing the emphasis of forestry. 3.4.2 Devolution and decentralisation.- 4. Widening the scope. 4.1 Amenity. 4.1.1 Landscaping the plantations. 4.1.2 Providing for leisure needs. 4.2 Conservation. 4.2.1 The ecological value of forests. 4.2.2 Protecting ancient woodlands. 4.3 Sustainability: a new preoccupation in forestry. 4.3.1 International policies. 4.3.2 The European dimension. 4.3.3 Sustainability in British forests. 4.4 Integrating all forestry missions. 4.4.1 Governmental policies. 4.4.2 From the global to the local.- 5. Forestry comes to town. 5.1 The origin of the concept. 5.1.1 Genesis and definitions. 5.1.2 Coming of age. 5.2 Importing the concept. 5.2.1 Urban living in Europe. 5.2.2 Research and education. 5.3 Urban forestry and Britain. 5.3.1 Building up a toolkit. 5.3.2 From resistance to acceptance. 5.4 Governmental involvement. 5.4.1 Raising awareness. 5.4.2 Local Government. 5.4.3 The creation of the Community Forests.- PART 2: MULTI-PURPOSE FORESTRY: ANOTHER NAME FOR UTOPIA? 6. The economy of postproductivist forestry: the impossible challenge? 6.1 The meanings of 'profitability'. 6.1.1 Market benefits. 6.1.2 Non-market benefits. 6.1.3 New mechanisms. 6.2. New outlets for forest products. 6.2.1 Certification. 6.2.2 Niche markets. 6.3 The markets of recreation and tourism. 6.3.1 The 'leisure explosion'. 6.3.2 Woodland and tourism.- 7. Phoenix reborn: the role of forestry in regeneration. 7.1 Rural regeneration. 7.1.1 Objectives and incentives. 7.1.2 Resistances. 7.1.3 Assessment. 7.2 Industrial and urban regeneration. 7.2.1 Rationale. 7.2.2 Strategies. 7.2.3 Landfill sites. 7.2.4 Mines and industrial sites. 7.2.5 The case of the National Forest. 7.2.6 Assessment.- 8. The contribution of woodlands to the environment. 8.1 The benefits of trees. 8.1.1 Absorption. 8.1.2 Regulation. 8.1.3 Protection. 8.2 The 'field of dreams'. 8.2.1 Trendy trees and the corporate image. 8.2.2 Tree planting versus climate change: myths and realities. 8.2.3 The limits of 'green power'. 8.2.4 Caring and choosing. 8.3 Tree planting and environmental law. 8.3.1 Complying with regulations and expectations. 8.3.2 Has the bubble burst?- 9. Social forestry and the health and education agenda. 9.1 The birth of social forestry. 9.1.1 Forest research. 9.1.2 The Social Forestry Unit. 9.2 Health and the natural world. 9.2.1 Bidding farewell to the Enlightenment. 9.2.2 The thrust of environmental psychology. 9.2.3 Lifestyle diseases and green therapies. 9.2.4 Implementing a new conception of health. 9.3 Education, a newly-born target. 9.3.1 Woodland as a tool for content-learning. 9.3.2 School grounds, grounds for growth. 9.3.3 Sowing the seeds of citizenship. 9.3.4 Bodies in the woods. 9.3.5 Assessment.- PART 3: THE TREE-LED SOLUTION TO EMPOWERMENT. 10. Forestry paradigms and resource provision. 10.1 Questioning the expert paradigm. 10.1.1 Quantitative and qualitative valuation. 10.1.2 Challenging the 'landscape value' approach. 10.1.3 Translating values into policies. 10.2 Fresh approaches to environmental valuation. 10.2.1 Bridging the gap. 10.2.2 Multiple value forestry. 10.2.3 Reconciling aesthetic and biodiversity values: towards a new paradigm. 10.3 The key issue of access. 10.3.1 Research into needs. 10.3.2 Measures to facilitate access and diversify supply. 10.3.3 Provision of access versus land use structure. 10.3.4 Access as the best enemy of the woodlands.- 11. Woodland participation and community building. 11.1 Sustainability and social inclusion. 11.1.1 The agenda. 11.1.2 Building up the toolbox for implementing and assessing participation. 11.2 From no man's lands to thriving communities. 11.2.1 Desperately seeking stakeholders. 11.2.2 Looking outside the box to build social capital. 11.3 Ladders of participation and scales of interest. 11.3.1 Love-hate relationship. 11.3.2 Woodlands as a minority interest. 11.3.3 The wider picture: community development, empowerment and social forestry.- 12. Grafting the past onto the present: the heritage of woodlands in the 21st Century. 12.1 'Trees of time and place'. 12.1.1 Bastions of Englishness. 12.1.2 Perpetuating practices. 12.1.3 Sylvan myths, religious and pagan practices. 12.2 Heritage, a modern world. 12.2.1 Context and definitions. 12.2.2 Policies and incentives. 12.2.3 On feeding Retrophilia.- Concluding remarks: rebranding England through consensual woodlands?-
From the reviews: "In this book the Author uses England as a case study to explore the relationships between forests, society and public perceptions ! . Each of the chapters is well-referenced and provides the readers with ample background materials to explore in more depth any of the methods or studies discussed. ! The intended audiences are the scientific and resource management communities, comprised of forest researchers, conservation biologists, and forest management professionals." (Francesco Ferrini, Advances in Horticultural Science, Vol. 23 (1), 2009) "This is the fourth volume in the Springer World Forests series, aimed at 'advanced students' and professionals interested in 'interrelations between forests, society and the environment'. This reviewer is in both categories, the target ! well hit. The author also suggests that England is a leader in urban and social forestry and that a wider international readership may find it useful. ! this may be a good moment to read a book on the social background. Overall, this is comprehensive, substantial and balanced ! ." (Alec Dauncey, International Forestry Review, September, 2010)